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Creators/Authors contains: "Christodoulides, Demetrios N."

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  1. Kerr beam cleaning is a nonlinear phenomenon in graded-index multimode fiber where power flows toward the fundamental mode, generating bell-shaped output beams. Here we study beam cleaning of femtosecond pulses accompanied by gain in a multimode fiber amplifier. Mode-resolved energy measurements and numerical simulations showed that the amplifier generates beams with high fundamental mode content (greater than 30% of the overall pulse energy) for a wide range of amplification levels. Control experiments using stretched pulses that evolve without strong Kerr nonlinear effects showed a degrading beam profile, in contrast to nonlinear beam cleaning. Temporal measurements showed that seed pulse parameters have a strong effect on the amplified pulse quality. These results may influence the design of future high-performance fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2024
  2. Recent years have witnessed a flurry of research activities in topological photonics, predominantly driven by the prospect for topological protection–a property that endows such systems with robustness against local defects, disorder, and perturbations. This field emerged in fermionic environments and primarily evolved within the framework of quantum mechanics which is by nature a Hermitian theory. However, in light of the ubiquitous presence of non-Hermiticity in a host of natural and artificial settings, one of the most pressing questions today is how non-Hermiticity may affect some of the predominant features of topological arrangements and whether or not novel topological phases may arise in non-conservative and out of equilibrium systems that are open to the environment. Here, we provide a brief overview of recent developments and ongoing efforts in this field and present our perspective on future directions and potential challenges. Special attention will be given to the interplay of topology and non-Hermiticity–an aspect that could open up new frontiers in physical sciences and could lead to promising opportunities in terms of applications in various disciplines of photonics.

  3. Abstract

    Recent experimental studies in heavily multimoded nonlinear optical systems have demonstrated that the optical power evolves towards a Rayleigh–Jeans (RJ) equilibrium state. To interpret these results, the notion of wave turbulence founded on four-wave mixing models has been invoked. Quite recently, a different paradigm for dealing with this class of problems has emerged based on thermodynamic principles. In this formalism, the RJ distribution arises solely because of ergodicity. This suggests that the RJ distribution has a more general origin than was earlier thought. Here, we verify this universality hypothesis by investigating various nonlinear light-matter coupling effects in physically accessible multimode platforms. In all cases, we find that the system evolves towards a RJ equilibrium—even when the wave-mixing paradigm completely fails. These observations, not only support a thermodynamic/probabilistic interpretation of these results, but also provide the foundations to expand this thermodynamic formalism along other major disciplines in physics.

  4. Spatiotemporal mode-locking in a laser with anomalous dispersion is investigated. Mode-locked states with varying modal content can be observed, but we find it difficult to observe highly-multimode states. We describe the properties of these mode-locked states and compare them to the results of numerical simulations. Prospects for the generation of highly-multimode states and lasers based on multimode soliton formation are discussed.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 25, 2023
  5. Abstract

    The chaotic evolution resulting from the interplay between topology and nonlinearity in photonic systems generally forbids the sustainability of optical currents. Here, we systematically explore the nonlinear evolution dynamics in topological photonic lattices within the framework of optical thermodynamics. By considering an archetypical two-dimensional Haldane photonic lattice, we discover several prethermal states beyond the topological phase transition point and a stable global equilibrium response, associated with a specific optical temperature and chemical potential. Along these lines, we provide a consistent thermodynamic methodology for both controlling and maximizing the unidirectional power flow in the topological edge states. This can be achieved by either employing cross-phase interactions between two subsystems or by exploiting self-heating effects in disordered or Floquet topological lattices. Our results indicate that photonic topological systems can in fact support robust photon transport processes even under the extreme complexity introduced by nonlinearity, an important feature for contemporary topological applications in photonics.

  6. A non-Hermitian Weyl equation indispensably requires a three-dimensional (3D) real/synthetic space, and it is thereby perceived that a Weyl exceptional ring (WER) will not be present in thermal diffusion given its purely dissipative nature. Here, we report a recipe for establishing a 3D parameter space to imitate thermal spinor field. Two orthogonal pairs of spatiotemporally modulated advections are employed to serve as two synthetic parameter dimensions, in addition to the inherent dimension corresponding to heat exchanges. We first predict the existence of WER in our hybrid conduction–advection system and experimentally observe the WER thermal signatures verifying our theoretical prediction. When coupling two WERs of opposite topological charges, the system further exhibits surface-like and bulk topological states, manifested as stationary and continuously changing thermal processes, respectively, with good robustness. Our findings reveal the long-ignored topological nature in thermal diffusion and may empower distinct paradigms for general diffusion and dissipation controls.