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  1. Abstract Background and objectives

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis posits that early life adversity is associated with poor adult health outcomes. Epidemiological evidence has supported this framework by linking low birthweight with adult health and mortality, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Accelerated epigenetic aging may be a pathway to connect early life experiences with adult health outcomes, based on associations of accelerated epigenetic aging with increased morbidity and mortality.


    Sixty-seven mother-infant dyads were recruited in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Birthweight data were collected at birth, and blood samples were collected at birth and follow-up visits up to age 3. DNA methylation data were generated with the Illumina MethylationEPIC array and used to estimate epigenetic age. A multilevel model was used to test for associations between birthweight and epigenetic age acceleration.


    Chronological age was highly correlated with epigenetic age from birth to age 3 (r = 0.95, p < 2.2 × 10−16). Variation in epigenetic age acceleration increased over time. Birthweight, dichotomized around 2500 g, predicted epigenetic age acceleration over the first 3 years of life (b = −0.39, p = 0.005).

    Conclusions and implications

    Our longitudinal analysis provides the first evidence for accelerated epigenetic aging that emergesmore »between birth and age 3 and associates with low birthweight. These results suggest that early life experiences, such as low birthweight, may shape the trajectory of epigenetic aging in early childhood. Furthermore, accelerated epigenetic aging may be a pathway that links low birthweight and poor adult health outcomes.

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  2. Abstract A search for low-mass dilepton resonances in Higgs boson decays is conducted in the four-lepton final state. The decay is assumed to proceed via a pair of beyond the standard model particles, or one such particle and a $${\mathrm{Z}}$$ Z boson. The search uses proton–proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 $$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 , at a center-of-mass energy $$\sqrt{s} = 13\,\text {TeV} $$ s = 13 TeV . No significant deviation from the standard model expectation is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on model-independent Higgs boson decay branching fractions. Additionally, limits on dark photon and axion-like particle production, based on two specific models, are reported.