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  1. Abstract The IceCube Neutrino Observatory opened the window on neutrino astronomy by discovering high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in 2013 and identifying the first compelling astrophysical neutrino source, the blazar TXS0506 + 056, in 2017. In this proceeding, we will discuss the science reach and ongoing development of the IceCube-Gen2 facility, which is the planned extension to IceCube. IceCube-Gen2 will increase the rate of observed cosmic neutrinos by an order of magnitude, be able to detect five-times fainter neutrino sources, and extend the measurement of astrophysical neutrinos several orders of magnitude higher in energy. We will discuss the envisioned design of the instrument,more »which will include an enlarged in-ice optical array, a surface array for the study of cosmic-rays, and a shallow radio array to detect ultra-high energy (>100 PeV) neutrinos. We will also highlight ongoing efforts to develop and test new instrumentation for IceCube-Gen2.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
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  3. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract IceCube is a cubic-kilometer Cherenkov telescope operating at the South Pole. The main goal of IceCube is the detection of astrophysical neutrinos and the identification of their sources. High-energy muon neutrinos are observed via the secondary muons produced in charge current interactions with nuclei in the ice. Currently, the best performing muon track directional reconstruction is based on a maximum likelihood method using the arrival time distribution of Cherenkov photons registered by the experiment's photomultipliers. A known systematic shortcoming of the prevailing method is to assume a continuous energy loss along the muon track. However at energies >1 TeVmore »the light yield from muons is dominated by stochastic showers. This paper discusses a generalized ansatz where the expected arrival time distribution is parametrized by a stochastic muon energy loss pattern. This more realistic parametrization of the loss profile leads to an improvement of the muon angular resolution of up to 20% for through-going tracks and up to a factor 2 for starting tracks over existing algorithms. Additionally, the procedure to estimate the directional reconstruction uncertainty has been improved to be more robust against numerical errors.« less