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  1. Abstract The luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGN) probes the history of supermassive black hole assembly and growth across cosmic time. To mitigate selection biases, we present a consistent analysis of the AGN luminosity functions (LFs) derived for both X-ray and mid-infrared (MIR) selected AGN in the XMM-Large Scale Structure field. There are 4268 AGN used to construct the MIR luminosity function (IRLF) and 3427 AGN used to construct the X-ray luminosity function (XLF), providing the largest census of the AGN population out to z = 4 in both bands with significant reduction in uncertainties. We are able formore »the first time to see the knee of the IRLF at z > 2 and observe a flattening of the faint-end slope as redshift increases. The bolometric luminosity density, a proxy for the cosmic black hole accretion history, computed from our LFs, shows a peak at z ≈ 2.25, consistent with recent estimates of the peak in the star formation rate density (SFRD). However, at earlier epochs, the AGN luminosity density is flatter than the SFRD. If confirmed, this result suggests that the build up of black hole mass outpaces the growth of stellar mass in high-mass systems at z ≳ 2.5. This is consistent with observations of redshift z ∼ 6 quasars that lie above the local M − σ relationship. The luminosity density derived from the IRLF is higher than that from the XLF at all redshifts. This is consistent with the dominant role of obscured AGN activity in the cosmic growth of supermassive black holes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT We measure the 850-μm source densities of 46 candidate protoclusters selected from the Planck high-z catalogue (PHz) and the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) that were followed up with Herschel-SPIRE and SCUBA-2. This paper aims to search for overdensities of 850-μm sources in order to select the fields that are most likely to be genuine protoclusters. Of the 46 candidate protoclusters, 25 have significant overdensities (>5 times the field counts), 11 have intermediate overdensities (3–5 times the field counts), and 10 have no overdensity (<3 times the field counts) of 850-μm sources. We find that the enhanced number densities are unlikelymore »to be the result of sample variance. Compared with the number counts of another sample selected from Planck’s compact source catalogues, this [PHz + PCCS]-selected sample has a higher fraction of candidate protoclusters with significant overdensities, though both samples show overdensities of 850-μm sources above intermediate level. Based on the estimated star formation rate densities (SFRDs), we suggest that both samples can efficiently select protoclusters with starbursting galaxies near the redshift at which the global field SFRD peaks (2 < z < 3). Based on the confirmation of overdensities found here, future follow-up observations on other PHz targets may greatly increase the number of genuine dusty star-forming galaxy-rich clusters/protoclusters.« less
  3. We present images obtained with LABOCA on the APEX telescope of a sample of 22 galaxies selected via their red Herschel SPIRE 250-, 350- and $500\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ colors. We aim to see if these luminous, rare and distant galaxies are signposting dense regions in the early Universe. Our $870\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ survey covers an area of $\approx0.8\,\textrm{deg}^2$ down to an average r.m.s. of $3.9\,\textrm{mJy beam}^{-1}$, with our five deepest maps going $\approx2\times$ deeper still. We catalog 86 DSFGs around our 'signposts', detected above a significance of $3.5\sigma$. This implies a $100\pm30\%$ over-density of $S_{870}>8.5\,\textrm{mJy}$ DSFGs, excluding our signposts, when comparing our number countsmore »to those in 'blank fields'. Thus, we are $99.93\%$ confident that our signposts are pinpointing over-dense regions in the Universe, and $\approx95\%$ confident that these regions are over-dense by a factor of at least $\ge1.5\times$. Using template SEDs and SPIRE/LABOCA photometry we derive a median photometric redshift of $z=3.2\pm0.2$ for our signposts, with an interquartile range of $z=2.8\textrm{-}3.6$. We constrain the DSFGs likely responsible for this over-density to within $|\Delta z|\le0.65$ of their respective signposts. These 'associated' DSFGs are radially distributed within $1.6\pm0.5\,\textrm{Mpc}$ of their signposts, have median SFRs of $\approx(1.0\pm0.2)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ (for a Salpeter stellar IMF) and median gas reservoirs of $\sim1.7\times10^{11}\,M_{\odot}$. These candidate proto-clusters have average total SFRs of at least $\approx (2.3\pm0.5)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ and space densities of $\sim9\times10^{-7}\,\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$, consistent with the idea that their constituents may evolve to become massive ETGs in the centers of the rich galaxy clusters we see today.« less

    We present SCUBA-2 850 $\mathrm{ \mu}$m observations of 13 candidate starbursting protoclusters selected using Planck and Herschel data. The cumulative number counts of the 850 $\mathrm{ \mu}$m sources in 9 of 13 of these candidate protoclusters show significant overdensities compared to the field, with the probability <10−2 assuming the sources are randomly distributed in the sky. Using the 250, 350, 500, and 850 $\mathrm{ \mu}$m flux densities, we estimate the photometric redshifts of individual SCUBA-2 sources by fitting spectral energy distribution templates with an MCMC method. The photometric redshift distribution, peaking at 2 < z < 3, is consistent with that ofmore »known z > 2 protoclusters and the peak of the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD). We find that the 850 $\mathrm{ \mu}$m sources in our candidate protoclusters have infrared luminosities of $L_{\mathrm{IR}}\gtrsim 10^{12}\, \mathrm{L}_{\odot }$ and star formation rates of SFR  = (500–1500) M⊙ yr−1. By comparing with results in the literature considering only Herschel photometry, we conclude that our 13 candidate protoclusters can be categorized into four groups: six of them being high-redshift starbursting protoclusters, one being a lower redshift cluster or protocluster, three being protoclusters that contain lensed dusty star-forming galaxies or are rich in 850 $\mathrm{ \mu}$m sources, and three regions without significant Herschel or SCUBA-2 source overdensities. The total SFRs of the candidate protoclusters are found to be comparable or higher than those of known protoclusters, suggesting our sample contains some of the most extreme protocluster population. We infer that cross-matching Planck and Herschel data is a robust method for selecting candidate protoclusters with overdensities of 850 $\mathrm{ \mu}$m sources.

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