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  1. Abstract Macroscopic phase coherence in superconductors enables quantum interference and phase manipulation at realistic device length scales. Numerous superconducting electronic devices are based on the modulation of the supercurrent in superconducting loops. While the overall behavior of symmetric superconducting loops has been studied, the effects of asymmetries in such devices remain under-explored and poorly understood. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical study of the flux modulation of the persistent current in a doubly connected asymmetric aluminum nanowire loop. A model considering the length and electronic cross-section asymmetries in the loop provides a quantitative account of the observations. Comparisonmore »with experiments give essential parameters such as persistent and critical currents as well as the amount of asymmetry which can provide feedback into the design of superconducting quantum devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Loss of tidal wetlands is a world-wide phenomenon. Many factors may contribute to such loss, but among them are geochemical stressors such as exposure of the marsh plants to elevated levels on hydrogen sulfide in the pore water of the marsh peat. Here we report the results of a study of the geochemistry of iron and sulfide at different seasons in unrestored (JoCo) and partially restored (Big Egg) salt marshes in Jamaica Bay, a highly urbanized estuary in New York City where the loss of salt marsh area has accelerated in recent years. The spatial and temporal 2-dimensional distribution patternsmore »of dissolved Fe 2+ and H 2 S in salt marshes were in situ mapped with high resolution planar sensors for the first time. The vertical profiles of Fe 2+ and hydrogen sulfide, as well as related solutes and redox potentials in marsh were also evaluated by sampling the pore water at discrete depths. Sediment cores were collected at various seasons and the solid phase Fe, S, N, C, and chromium reducible sulfide in marsh peat at discrete depths were further investigated in order to study Fe and S cycles, and their relationship to the organic matter cycling at different seasons. Our results revealed that the redox sensitive elements Fe 2+ and S 2– showed significantly heterogeneous and complex three dimensional distribution patterns in salt marsh, over mm to cm scales, directly associated with the plant roots due to the oxygen leakage from roots and redox diagenetic reactions. We hypothesize that the oxic layers with low/undetected H 2 S and Fe 2+ formed around roots help marsh plants to survive in the high levels of H 2 S by reducing sulfide absorption. The overall concentrations of Fe 2+ and H 2 S and distribution patterns also seasonally varied with temperature change. H 2 S level in JoCo sampling site could change from <0.02 mM in spring to >5 mM in fall season, reflecting significantly seasonal variation in the rates of bacterial oxidation of organic matter at this marsh site. Solid phase Fe and S showed that very high fractions of the diagenetically reactive iron at JoCo and Big Egg were associated with pyrite that can persist for long periods in anoxic sediments. This implies that there is insufficient diagenetically reactive iron to buffer the pore water hydrogen sulfide through formation of iron sulfides at JoCo and Big Egg.« less
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed tomore »meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023