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This paper addresses the viscous flow developing about an array of equally spaced identical circular cylinders aligned with an incompressible fluid stream whose velocity oscillates periodically in time. The focus of the analysis is on harmonically oscillating flows with stroke lengths that are comparable to or smaller than the cylinder radius, such that the flow remains twodimensional, timeperiodic and symmetric with respect to the centreline. Specific consideration is given to the limit of asymptotically small stroke lengths, in which the flow is harmonic at leading order, with the firstorder corrections exhibiting a steadystreaming component, which is computed here along with the accompanying Stokes drift. As in the familiar case of oscillating flow over a single cylinder, for small stroke lengths, the associated timeaveraged Lagrangian velocity field, given by the sum of the steadystreaming and Stokesdrift components, displays recirculating vortices, which are quantified for different values of the two relevant controlling parameters, namely, the Womersley number and the ratio of the intercylinder distance to the cylinder radius. Comparisons with results of direct numerical simulations indicate that the description of the Lagrangian mean flow for infinitesimally small values of the stroke length remains reasonably accurate even when the stroke length is comparable to the cylinder radius. The numerical integrations are also used to quantify the streamwise flow rate induced by the presence of the cylinder array in cases where the periodic surrounding motion is driven by an anharmonic pressure gradient, a problem of interest in connection with the oscillating flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the nerve roots located along the spinal canal.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available March 25, 2024

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of solute transport in a simplified model of the spinal canal. The work aims to provide increased understanding of the mechanisms responsible for drug dispersion in intrathecal drug delivery (ITDD) procedures. The model consists of an annular channel bounded externally by a rigid transparent tube of circular section, representing the dura mater, and internally by an eccentric cylindrical compliant insert, representing the spinal cord. The tube, closed at one end, is connected to a rigid acrylic reservoir, representing the cranial cavity. The system is filled with water, whose properties are almost identical to those of the cerebrospinal fluid. A programmable peristaltic pump is employed to generate oscillatory motion at frequencies that are representative of those induced by the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Laser induced fluorescence is used to characterize the dispersion of fluorescent dye along the canal and into the cranial cavity for different values of the relevant Womersley number and different eccentricities of the annular section. The present work corroborates experimentally, for the first time, the existence of a steady bulk flow, associated with the mean Lagrangian motion, which plays a key role in the transport of the solute along the spinal canal. The measurements of solute dispersion are found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions obtained using a simplified transport equation derived earlier on the basis of a twotimescale asymptotic analysis. The experimental results underscore the importance of the eccentricity and its variations along the canal and identifies changes in the flow topology associated with differences in the Womersley number, with potential implications in guiding future designs of ITDD protocols.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available May 1, 2024

This paper investigates flow and transport in a slender wavywalled vertical channel subject to a prescribed oscillatory pressure difference between its ends. When the ratio of the stroke length of the pulsatile flow to the channel wavelength is small, the resulting flow velocity is known to include a slow steadystreaming component resulting from the effect of the convective acceleration. Our study considers the additional effect of gravitational forces in configurations with a nonuniform density distribution. Specific attention is given to the slowly evolving buoyancymodulated flow emerging after the deposition of a finite amount of solute whose density is different from that of the fluid contained in the channel, a relevant problem in connection with drug dispersion in intrathecal drug delivery (ITDD) processes, involving the injection of the drug into the cerebrospinal fluid that fills the spinal canal. It is shown that when the Richardson number is of order unity, the relevant limit in ITDD applications, the resulting buoyancyinduced velocities are comparable to those of steady streaming. As a consequence, the slow timeaveraged Lagrangian motion of the fluid, involving the sum of the Stokes drift and the timeaveraged Eulerian velocity, is intimately coupled with the transport of the solute, resulting in a slowly evolving problem that can be treated with twotimescale methods. The asymptotic development leads to a timeaveraged, nonlinear integrodifferential transport equation that describes the slow dispersion of the solute, thereby circumventing the need to describe the small concentration fluctuations associated with the fast oscillatory motion. The ideas presented here can find application in developing reduced models for future quantitative analyses of drug dispersion in the spinal canal.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available October 25, 2023

This paper addresses peristaltic flow induced in a nonaxisymmetric annular tube by a periodic smallamplitude wave of arbitrary shape propagating axially along its inner surface, assumed to be a circular cylinder. The study is motivated by recent in vivo experimental observations pertaining to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid along the perivascular spaces of cerebral arteries. The analysis employs the lubrication approximation, describing lowReynoldsnumber peristaltic flow in the longwavelength approximation. Closedform analytic expressions are derived for the average pumping rate in infinitely long tubes and also in tubes of finite length. Consideration is also given to the transverse motion arising in nonaxisymmetric tubes. For smallamplitude waves, the solution is reduced to the integration of a parameterfree Stokesflow problem, which is solved for relevant crosssectional shapes, with closedform analytical results derived for thin canals.more » « less

null (Ed.)This paper addresses the pulsating motion of cerebrospinal fluid in the aqueduct of Sylvius, a slender canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. Specific attention is given to the relation between the instantaneous values of the flow rate and the interventricular pressure difference, needed in clinical applications to enable indirect evaluations of the latter from direct magnetic resonance measurements of the former. An order of magnitude analysis accounting for the slenderness of the canal is used in simplifying the flow description. The boundary layer approximation is found to be applicable in the slender canal, where the oscillating flow is characterized by stroke lengths comparable to the canal length and periods comparable to the transverse diffusion time. By way of contrast, the flow in the nonslender opening regions connecting the aqueduct with the two ventricles is found to be inviscid and quasisteady in the first approximation. The resulting simplified description is validated by comparison with results of direct numerical simulations. The model is used to investigate the relation between the interventricular pressure and the stroke length, in parametric ranges of interest in clinical applications.more » « less

null (Ed.)This paper investigates the steady axisymmetric structure of the cold boundarylayer flow surrounding fire whirls developing over localized fuel sources lying on a horizontal surface. The inviscid swirling motion found outside the boundary layer, driven by the entrainment of the buoyant turbulent plume of hot combustion products that develops above the fire, is described by an irrotational solution, obtained by combining Taylor's selfsimilar solution for the motion in the axial plane with the azimuthal motion induced by a line vortex of circulation $2 {\rm \pi}\Gamma$ . The development of the boundary layer from a prescribed radial location is determined by numerical integration for different swirl levels, measured by the value of the radialtoazimuthal velocity ratio $\sigma$ at the initial radial location. As in the case $\sigma =0$ , treated in the seminal boundarylayer analysis of Burggraf et al. ( Phys. Fluids , vol. 14, 1971, pp. 1821–1833), the pressure gradient associated with the centripetal acceleration of the inviscid flow is seen to generate a pronounced radial inflow. Specific attention is given to the terminal shape of the boundarylayer velocity near the axis, which displays a threelayered structure that is described by matched asymptotic expansions. The resulting composite expansion, dependent on the level of ambient swirl through the parameter $\sigma$ , is employed as boundary condition to describe the deflection of the boundarylayer flow near the axis to form a vertical swirl jet. Numerical solutions of the resulting nonslender collision region for different values of $\sigma$ are presented both for inviscid flow and for viscous flow with moderately large values of the controlling Reynolds number $\Gamma /\nu$ . The velocity description provided is useful in mathematical formulations of localized firewhirl flows, providing consistent boundary conditions accounting for the ambient swirl level.more » « less