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Creators/Authors contains: "Cohn, Jeffrey F."

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  1. Abstract

    Automated detection of facial action units in infants is challenging. Infant faces have different proportions, less texture, fewer wrinkles and furrows, and unique facial actions relative to adults. For these and related reasons, action unit (AU) detectors that are trained on adult faces may generalize poorly to infant faces. To train and test AU detectors for infant faces, we trained convolutional neural networks (CNN) in adult video databases and fine-tuned these networks in two large, manually annotated, infant video databases that differ in context, head pose, illumination, video resolution, and infant age. AUs were those central to expression of positive and negative emotion. AU detectors trained in infants greatly outperformed ones trained previously in adults. Training AU detectors across infant databases afforded greater robustness to between-database differences than did training database specific AU detectors and outperformed previous state-of-the-art in infant AU detection. The resulting AU detection system, which we refer to as Infant AFAR (Automated Facial Action Recognition), is available to the research community for further testing and applications in infant emotion, social interaction, and related topics.

  2. This paper studies the hypothesis that not all modalities are always needed to predict affective states. We explore this hypothesis in the context of recognizing three affective states that have shown a relation to a future onset of depression: positive, aggressive, and dysphoric. In particular, we investigate three important modali- ties for face-to-face conversations: vision, language, and acoustic modality. We first perform a human study to better understand which subset of modalities people find informative, when recog- nizing three affective states. As a second contribution, we explore how these human annotations can guide automatic affect recog- nition systems to be more interpretable while not degrading their predictive performance. Our studies show that humans can reliably annotate modality informativeness. Further, we observe that guided models significantly improve interpretability, i.e., they attend to modalities similarly to how humans rate the modality informative- ness, while at the same time showing a slight increase in predictive performance.
  3. Most approaches to automatic facial action unit (AU) detection consider only spatial information and ignore AU dynamics. For humans, dynamics improves AU perception. Is same true for algorithms? To make use of AU dynamics, recent work in automated AU detection has proposed a sequential spatiotemporal approach: Model spatial information using a 2D CNN and then model temporal information using LSTM (Long-Short-Term Memory). Inspired by the experience of human FACS coders, we hypothesized that combining spatial and temporal information simultaneously would yield more powerful AU detection. To achieve this, we propose FACS3D-Net that simultaneously integrates 3D and 2D CNN. Evaluation was on the Expanded BP4D+ database of 200 participants. FACS3D-Net outperformed both 2D CNN and 2D CNN-LSTM approaches. Visualizations of learnt representations suggest that FACS3D-Net is consistent with the spatiotemporal dynamics attended to by human FACS coders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to apply 3D CNN to the problem of AU detection.
  4. The Duchenne smile hypothesis is that smiles that include eye constriction (AU6) are the product of genuine positive emotion, whereas smiles that do not are either falsified or related to negative emotion. This hypothesis has become very influential and is often used in scientific and applied settings to justify the inference that a smile is either true or false. However, empirical support for this hypothesis has been equivocal and some researchers have proposed that, rather than being a reliable indicator of positive emotion, AU6 may just be an artifact produced by intense smiles. Initial support for this proposal has been found when comparing smiles related to genuine and feigned positive emotion; however, it has not yet been examined when comparing smiles related to genuine positive and negative emotion. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining spontaneous smiles from 136 participants during the elicitation of amusement, embarrassment, fear, and pain (from the BP4D+ dataset). Bayesian multilevel regression models were used to quantify the associations between AU6 and self-reported amusement while controlling for smile intensity. Models were estimated to infer amusement from AU6 and to explain the intensity of AU6 using amusement. In both cases, controlling for smilemore »intensity substantially reduced the hypothesized association, whereas the effect of smile intensity itself was quite large and reliable. These results provide further evidence that the Duchenne smile is likely an artifact of smile intensity rather than a reliable and unique indicator of genuine positive emotion.« less