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Abstract Threebody nuclear forces play an important role in the structure of nuclei and hypernuclei and are also incorporated in models to describe the dynamics of dense baryonic matter, such as in neutron stars. So far, only indirect measurements anchored to the binding energies of nuclei can be used to constrain the threenucleon force, and if hyperons are considered, the scarce data on hypernuclei impose only weak constraints on the threebody forces. In this work, we present the first direct measurement of the p–p–p and p–p– $$\Lambda $$ Λ systems in terms of threeparticle correlation functions carried out for pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ s = 13 TeV. Threeparticle cumulants are extracted from the correlation functions by applying the Kubo formalism, where the threeparticle interaction contribution to these correlations can be isolated after subtracting the known twobody interaction terms. A negative cumulant is found for the p–p–p system, hinting to the presence of a residual threebody effect while for p–p– $$\Lambda $$ Λ the cumulant is consistent with zero. This measurement demonstrates the accessibility of threebaryon correlations at the LHC.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available July 1, 2024

Abstract A newly developed observable for correlations between symmetry planes, which characterize the direction of the anisotropic emission of produced particles, is measured in Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_\text {NN}}$$ s NN = 2.76 TeV with ALICE. This socalled Gaussian Estimator allows for the first time the study of these quantities without the influence of correlations between different flow amplitudes. The centrality dependence of various correlations between two, three and four symmetry planes is presented. The ordering of magnitude between these symmetry plane correlations is discussed and the results of the Gaussian Estimator are compared with measurements of previously used estimators. The results utilizing the new estimator lead to significantly smaller correlations than reported by studies using the Scalar Product method. Furthermore, the obtained symmetry plane correlations are compared to stateoftheart hydrodynamic model calculations for the evolution of heavyion collisions. While the model predictions provide a qualitative description of the data, quantitative agreement is not always observed, particularly for correlators with significant nonlinear response of the medium to initial state anisotropies of the collision system. As these results provide unique and independent information, their usage in future Bayesian analysis can further constrain our knowledge on the properties of the QCD matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavyion collisions.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available July 1, 2024

A bstract The production of π ± , K ± , and $$ \left(\overline{\textrm{p}}\right)\textrm{p} $$ p ¯ p is measured in pp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV in different topological regions of the events. Particle transverse momentum ( p T ) spectra are measured in the “toward”, “transverse”, and “away” angular regions defined with respect to the direction of the leading particle in the event. While the toward and away regions contain the fragmentation products of the nearside and awayside jets, respectively, the transverse region is dominated by particles from the Underlying Event (UE). The relative transverse activity classifier, R T = N T /〈 N T 〉, is used to group events according to their UE activity, where N T is the measured chargedparticle multiplicity per event in the transverse region and 〈 N T 〉 is the mean value over all the analysed events. The first measurements of identified particle p T spectra as a function of R T in the three topological regions are reported. It is found that the yield of high transverse momentum particles relative to the R T integrated measurement decreases with increasing R T in both the toward and the away regions, indicating that the softer UE dominates particle production as R T increases and validating that R T can be used to control the magnitude of the UE. Conversely, the spectral shapes in the transverse region harden significantly with increasing R T . This hardening follows a mass ordering, being more significant for heavier particles. Finally, it is observed that the p T differential particle ratios $$ \left(\textrm{p}+\overline{\textrm{p}}\right)/\left({\uppi}^{+}+{\uppi}^{}\right) $$ p + p ¯ / π + + π − and (K + + K − ) / ( π + + π − ) in the low UE limit ( R T → 0) approach expectations from Monte Carlo generators such as PYTHIA 8 with Monash 2013 tune and EPOS LHC, where the jetfragmentation models have been tuned to reproduce e + e − results.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 1, 2024

Abstract This article presents new measurements of the fragmentation properties of jets in both proton–proton (pp) and heavyion collisions with the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We report distributions of the fraction z r of transverse momentum carried by subjets of radius r within jets of radius R . Chargedparticle jets are reconstructed at midrapidity using the anti k T algorithm with jet radius R = 0 . 4, and subjets are reconstructed by reclustering the jet constituents using the anti k T algorithm with radii r = 0 . 1 and r = 0 . 2. In proton–proton collisions, we measure both the inclusive and leading subjet distributions. We compare these measurements to perturbative calculations at nexttoleading logarithmic accuracy, which suggest a large impact of threshold resummation and hadronization effects on the z r distribution. In heavyion collisions, we measure the leading subjet distributions, which allow access to a region of harder jet frag mentation than has been probed by previous measurements of jet quenching via hadron fragmentation distributions. The z r distributions enable extraction of the partontosubjet fragmentation function and allow for tests of the universality of jet fragmentation functions in the quark–gluon plasma (QGP). We find no significant modification of z r distributions in Pb–Pb compared to pp collisions. However, the distributions are also consistent with a hardening trend for z r < 0 . 95, as predicted by several jet quenching models. As z r → 1 our results indicate that any such hardening effects cease, exposing qualitatively new possibilities to disentangle competing jet quenching mechanisms. By comparing our results to theoretical calculations based on an independent extraction of the partontojet fragmentation function, we find consistency with the universality of jet fragmentation and no indication of factorization breaking in the QGP.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 1, 2024

A bstract The first measurement of the e + e − pair production at low lepton pair transverse momentum ( p T , ee ) and low invariant mass ( m ee ) in noncentral Pb–Pb collisions at $$ {\sqrt{s}}_{\textrm{NN}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV at the LHC is presented. The dielectron production is studied with the ALICE detector at midrapidity ( η e  < 0 . 8) as a function of invariant mass (0.4 ≤ m ee < 2 . 7 GeV/ c 2 ) in the 50–70% and 70–90% centrality classes for p T , ee < 0.1 GeV/ c , and as a function of p T , ee in three m ee intervals in the most peripheral Pb–Pb collisions. Below a p T , ee of 0.1 GeV/ c , a clear excess of e + e − pairs is found compared to the expectations from known hadronic sources and predictions of thermal radiation from the medium. The m ee excess spectra are reproduced, within uncertainties, by different predictions of the photon–photon production of dielectrons, where the photons originate from the extremely strong electromagnetic fields generated by the highly Lorentzcontracted Pb nuclei. Lowestorder quantum electrodynamic (QED) calculations, as well as a model that takes into account the impactparameter dependence of the average transverse momentum of the photons, also provide a good description of the p T , ee spectra. The measured $$ \sqrt{\left\langle {p}_{\textrm{T},\textrm{ee}}^2\right\rangle } $$ p T , ee 2 of the excess p T , ee spectrum in peripheral Pb–Pb collisions is found to be comparable to the values observed previously at RHIC in a similar phasespace region.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 1, 2024

A bstract The measurement of the production of charm jets, identified by the presence of a D 0 meson in the jet constituents, is presented in proton–proton collisions at centreofmass energies of $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 5.02 and 13 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The D 0 mesons were reconstructed from their hadronic decay D 0 → K − π + and the respective charge conjugate. Jets were reconstructed from D 0 meson candidates and charged particles using the anti k T algorithm, in the jet transverse momentum range 5 < p T , chjet < 50 GeV/ c , pseudorapidity  η jet  < 0 . 9 − R , and with the jet resolution parameters R = 0 . 2 , 0 . 4 , 0 . 6. The distribution of the jet momentum fraction carried by a D 0 meson along the jet axis $$ \left({z}_{\Big\Vert}^{\textrm{ch}}\right) $$ z ‖ ch was measured in the range 0 . 4 < $$ {z}_{\Big\Vert}^{\textrm{ch}} $$ z ‖ ch < 1 . 0 in four ranges of the jet transverse momentum. Comparisons of results for different collision energies and jet resolution parameters are also presented. The measurements are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators based on leadingorder and nexttoleadingorder perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. A generally good description of the main features of the data is obtained in spite of a few discrepancies at low p T , chjet . Measurements were also done for R = 0 . 3 at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 5 . 02 and are shown along with their comparisons to theoretical predictions in an appendix to this paper.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 1, 2024

A bstract Production of inclusive charmonia in pp collisions at centerofmass energy of $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV and p–Pb collisions at centerofmass energy per nucleon pair of $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 8 . 16 TeV is studied as a function of chargedparticle pseudorapidity density with ALICE. Ground and excited charmonium states ( J/ψ , ψ (2S)) are measured from their dimuon decays in the interval of rapidity in the centerofmass frame 2 . 5 < y cms < 4 . 0 for pp collisions, and 2 . 03 < y cms < 3 . 53 and −4 . 46 < y cms < −2 . 96 for p–Pb collisions. The chargedparticle pseudorapidity density is measured around midrapidity ( η  < 1 . 0). In pp collisions, the measured chargedparticle multiplicity extends to about six times the average value, while in pPb collisions at forward (backward) rapidity a multiplicity corresponding to about three (four) times the average is reached. The ψ (2S) yield increases with the chargedparticle pseudorapidity density. The ratio of ψ (2S) over J/ψ yield does not show a significant multiplicity dependence in either colliding system, suggesting a similar behavior of J/ψ and ψ (2S) yields with respect to chargedparticle pseudorapidity density. Results for the ψ (2S) yield and its ratio with respect to J/ψ agree with available model calculations.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 1, 2024

A bstract We report about the properties of the underlying event measured with ALICE at the LHC in pp and p–Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV. The event activity, quantified by chargedparticle number and summed p T densities, is measured as a function of the leadingparticle transverse momentum $$ \left({p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}\right) $$ p T trig . These quantities are studied in three azimuthalangle regions relative to the leading particle in the event: toward, away, and transverse. Results are presented for three different p T thresholds (0.15, 0.5 and 1 GeV/ c ) at midpseudorapidity ( η  < 0 . 8). The event activity in the transverse region, which is the most sensitive to the underlying event, exhibits similar behaviour in both pp and p–Pb collisions, namely, a steep increase with $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig for low $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig , followed by a saturation at $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}\approx 5 $$ p T trig ≈ 5 GeV/ c . The results from pp collisions are compared with existing measurements at other centreofmass energies. The quantities in the toward and away regions are also analyzed after the subtraction of the contribution measured in the transverse region. The remaining jetlike particle densities are consistent in pp and p–Pb collisions for $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}>10 $$ p T trig > 10 GeV/ c , whereas for lower $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig values the event activity is slightly higher in p–Pb than in pp collisions. The measurements are compared with predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC Monte Carlo event generators.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 1, 2024

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available May 1, 2024

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available May 1, 2024