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  1. Abstract

    Using 20 long-term 3D core-collapse supernova simulations, we find that lower compactness progenitors that explode quasi-spherically due to the short delay to explosion experience smaller neutron star recoil kicks in the ∼100−200 km s−1range, while higher compactness progenitors that explode later and more aspherically leave neutron stars with kicks in the ∼300−1000 km s−1range. In addition, we find that these two classes are correlated with the gravitational mass of the neutron star. This correlation suggests that the survival of binary neutron star systems may in part be due to their lower kick speeds. We also find a correlation between the kick and both the mass dipole of the ejecta and the explosion energy. Furthermore, one channel of black hole birth leaves masses of ∼10M, is not accompanied by a neutrino-driven explosion, and experiences small kicks. A second channel is through a vigorous explosion that leaves behind a black hole with a mass of ∼3.0Mkicked to high speeds. We find that the induced spins of nascent neutron stars range from seconds to ∼10 ms, but do not yet see a significant spin/kick correlation for pulsars. We suggest that if an initial spin biases the explosion direction, a spin/kick correlation would be a common byproduct of the neutrino mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. Finally, the induced spin in explosive black hole formation is likely large and in the collapsar range. This new 3D model suite provides a greatly expanded perspective and appears to explain some observed pulsar properties by default.

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    We consider the general problem of a Parker-type non-relativistic isothermal wind from a rotating and magnetic star. Using the magnetohydrodynamics code athena++, we construct an array of simulations in the stellar rotation rate Ω* and the isothermal sound speed cT, and calculate the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss rates across this parameter space. We also briefly consider the 3D case, with misaligned magnetic and rotation axes. We discuss applications of our results to the spin-down of normal stars, highly irradiated exoplanets, and to nascent highly magnetic and rapidly rotating neutron stars born in massive star core-collapse.

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    Rapidly rotating magnetars have been associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Using a suite of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations at fixed neutrino luminosity and a couple of evolutionary models with evolving neutrino luminosity and magnetar spin period, we show that magnetars are viable central engines for powering GRBs and SLSNe. We also present analytical estimates of the energy outflow rate from the proto-neutron star (PNS) as a function of polar magnetic field strength B0, PNS angular velocity Ω⋆, PNS radius R⋆, and mass outflow rate $\dot{M}$. We show that rapidly rotating magnetars with spin periods P⋆ ≲ 4 ms and polar magnetic field strength B0 ≳ 1015 G can release 1050 to 5 × 1051 erg of energy during the first ∼2 s of the cooling phase. Based on this result, it is plausible that sustained energy injection by magnetars through the relativistic wind phase can power GRBs. We also show that magnetars with moderate field strengths of B0 ≲ 5 × 1014 G do not release a large fraction of their rotational kinetic energy during the cooling phase and, hence, are not likely to power GRBs. Although we cannot simulate to times greater than ∼3–5 s after a supernova, we can hypothesize that moderate field strength magnetars can brighten the supernova light curves by releasing their rotational kinetic energy via magnetic dipole radiation on time-scales of days to weeks, since these do not expend most of their rotational kinetic energy during the early cooling phase.

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    Using simulations of non-rotating supernova progenitors, we explore the kicks imparted to and the spins induced in the compact objects birthed in core collapse. We find that the recoil due to neutrino emissions can be a factor affecting core recoil, comparable to and at times larger than the corresponding kick due to matter recoil. This result would necessitate a revision of the general model of the origin of pulsar proper motions. In addition, we find that the sign of the net neutrino momentum can be opposite to the sign of the corresponding matter recoil. As a result, at times the pulsar recoil and ejecta can be in the same direction. Moreover, our results suggest that the duration of the dipole in the neutrino emissions can be shorter than the duration of the radiation of the neutron-star binding energy. This allows a larger dipole asymmetry to arise, but for a shorter time, resulting in kicks in the observed pulsar range. Furthermore, we find that the spin induced by the aspherical accretion of matter can leave the residues of collapse with spin periods comparable to those inferred for radio pulsars and that there seems to be a slight anticorrelation between the direction of the induced spin and the net kick direction. This could explain such a correlation among observed radio pulsars. Finally, we find that the kicks imparted to black holes are due to the neutrino recoil alone, resulting in birth kicks ≤100 km s−1 most of the time.

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  5. Abstract

    Calibrating with detailed 2D core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations, we derive a simple CCSN explosion condition based solely upon the terminal density profiles of state-of-the-art stellar evolution calculations of the progenitor massive stars. This condition captures the vast majority of the behaviour of the one hundred 2D state-of-the-art models we performed to gauge its usefulness. The goal is to predict, without resort to detailed simulation, the explodability of a given massive star. We find that the simple maximum fractional ram pressure jump discriminant we define works well ∼90 per cent of the time and we speculate on the origin of the few false positives and false negatives we witness. The maximum ram pressure jump generally occurs at the time of accretion of the silicon/oxygen interface, but not always. Our results depend upon the fidelity with which the current implementation of our code F ornax adheres to Nature and issues concerning the neutrino–matter interaction, the nuclear equation of state, the possible effects of neutrino oscillations, grid resolution, the possible role of rotation and magnetic fields, and the accuracy of the numerical algorithms employed remain to be resolved. Nevertheless, the explodability condition we obtain is simple to implement, shows promise that it might be further generalized while still employing data from only the unstable Chandrasekhar progenitors, and is a more credible and robust simple explosion predictor than can currently be found in the literature.

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    In the seconds following their formation in core-collapse supernovae, ‘proto’-magnetars drive neutrino-heated magnetocentrifugal winds. Using a suite of two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we show that relatively slowly rotating magnetars with initial spin periods of P⋆0 = 50–500 ms spin down rapidly during the neutrino Kelvin–Helmholtz cooling epoch. These initial spin periods are representative of those inferred for normal Galactic pulsars, and much slower than those invoked for gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae. Since the flow is non-relativistic at early times, and because the Alfvén radius is much larger than the proto-magnetar radius, spin-down is millions of times more efficient than the typically used dipole formula. Quasi-periodic plasmoid ejections from the closed zone enhance spin-down. For polar magnetic field strengths B0 ≳ 5 × 1014 G, the spin-down time-scale can be shorter than the Kelvin–Helmholtz time-scale. For B0 ≳ 1015 G, it is of the order of seconds in early phases. We compute the spin evolution for cooling proto-magnetars as a function of B0, P⋆0, and mass (M). Proto-magnetars born with B0 greater than $\simeq 1.3\times 10^{15}\, {\rm \, G}\, (P_{\star 0}/{400\, \rm \, ms})^{-1.4}(M/1.4\, {\rm M}_\odot)^{2.2}$ spin down to periods >1 s in just the first few seconds of evolution, well before the end of the cooling epoch and the onset of classic dipole spin-down. Spin-down is more efficient for lower M and for larger P⋆0. We discuss the implications for observed magnetars, including the discrepancy between their characteristic ages and supernova remnant ages. Finally, we speculate on the origin of 1E 161348−5055 in the remnant RCW 103, and the potential for other ultra-slowly rotating magnetars.

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    Astrophysical objects possessing a material surface (white dwarfs, young stars, etc.) may accrete gas from the disc through the so-called surface boundary layer (BL), in which the angular velocity of the accreting gas experiences a sharp drop. Acoustic waves excited by the supersonic shear in the BL play an important role in mediating the angular momentum and mass transport through that region. Here we examine the characteristics of the angular momentum transport produced by the different types of wave modes emerging in the inner disc, using the results of a large suite of hydrodynamic simulations of the BLs. We provide a comparative analysis of the transport properties of different modes across the range of relevant disc parameters. In particular, we identify the types of modes that are responsible for the mass accretion on to the central object. We find the correlated perturbations of surface density and radial velocity to provide an important contribution to the mass accretion rate. Although the wave-driven transport is intrinsically non-local, we do observe a clear correlation between the angular momentum flux injected into the disc by the waves and the mass accretion rate through the BL. We find the efficiency of angular momentum transport (normalized by thermal pressure) to be a weak function of the flow Mach number. We also quantify the wave-driven evolution of the inner disc, in particular the modification of the angular frequency profile in the disc. Our results pave the way for understanding wave-mediated transport in future three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic studies of the BLs.

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    The explosion outcome and diagnostics of core-collapse supernovae depend sensitively on the nature of the stellar progenitor, but most studies to date have focused exclusively on one-dimensional, spherically symmetric massive star progenitors. We present some of the first core-collapse supernovae simulations of three-dimensional massive star supernovae progenitors, a 12.5- and a 15-M⊙ model, evolved in three dimensions from collapse to bounce through explosion with the radiation-hydrodynamic code fornax. We compare the results using those starting from three-dimensional progenitors to three-dimensional simulations of spherically symmetric, one-dimensional progenitors of the same mass. We find that the models evolved in three dimensions during the final stages of massive star evolution are more prone to explosion. The turbulence arising in these multidimensional initial models serves as seed turbulence that promotes shock revival. Detection of gravitational waves and neutrinos signals could reveal signatures of pre-bounce turbulence.

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  9. Abstract

    In order to address the generation of neutron star magnetic fields, with particular focus on the dichotomy between magnetars and radio pulsars, we consider the properties of dynamos as inferred from other astrophysical systems. With sufficiently low (modified) Rossby number, convective dynamos are known to produce dipole-dominated fields whose strength scales with convective flux, and we argue that these expectations should apply to the convective protoneutron stars (PNSs) at the centers of core-collapse supernovae. We analyze a suite of three-dimensional simulations of core collapse, featuring a realistic equation of state and full neutrino transport, in this context. All our progenitor models, ranging from 9Mto 25M, including one with initial rotation, have sufficiently vigorous PNS convection to generate dipole fields of order ∼1015Gauss, if the modified Rossby number resides in the critical range. Thus, the magnetar/radio pulsar dichotomy may arise naturally in part from the distribution of core rotation rates in massive stars.

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