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  1. Abstract Fire is an integral component of ecosystems globally and a tool that humans have harnessed for millennia. Altered fire regimes are a fundamental cause and consequence of global change, impacting people and the biophysical systems on which they depend. As part of the newly emerging Anthropocene, marked by human-caused climate change and radical changes to ecosystems, fire danger is increasing, and fires are having increasingly devastating impacts on human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem services. Increasing fire danger is a vexing problem that requires deep transdisciplinary, trans-sector, and inclusive partnerships to address. Here, we outline barriers and opportunities in themore »next generation of fire science and provide guidance for investment in future research. We synthesize insights needed to better address the long-standing challenges of innovation across disciplines to (i) promote coordinated research efforts; (ii) embrace different ways of knowing and knowledge generation; (iii) promote exploration of fundamental science; (iv) capitalize on the “firehose” of data for societal benefit; and (v) integrate human and natural systems into models across multiple scales. Fire science is thus at a critical transitional moment. We need to shift from observation and modeled representations of varying components of climate, people, vegetation, and fire to more integrative and predictive approaches that support pathways towards mitigating and adapting to our increasingly flammable world, including the utilization of fire for human safety and benefit. Only through overcoming institutional silos and accessing knowledge across diverse communities can we effectively undertake research that improves outcomes in our more fiery future.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 4, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Predators impact preyscapes (3-D distribution of forage species) by consuming prey according to their abilities or by altering prey behavior as they avoid being consumed. We elucidate prey (Antarctic silverfish[Pleuragramma antarctica] and crystal krill[Euphausia chrystallorophias]) responses to predation associated with the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, polynya. Prey abundance and habitat was sampled across a 30 × 15 km area by remotely-operated vehicle, and included locations that were accessible (ice edge) or inaccessible (solid fast ice) to air-breathing predators. Prey and habitat sampling coincided with bio-logging of Adélie penguins and observations of other air-breathing predators (penguins,more »seals, and whales), all of which were competing for the same prey. Adélie penguins dived deeper, and more frequently, near the ice edge. Lowered abundance of krill at the ice edge indicated they were depleted or were responding to increased predation and/or higher light levels along the ice edge. Penguin diet shifted increasingly to silverfish from krill during sampling, and was correlated with the arrival of krill-eating whales. Behaviorally-mediated, high trophic transfer characterizes the McMurdo Sound MIZ, and likely other MIZs, warranting more specific consideration in food web models and conservation efforts.

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