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  1. Abstract When electrons with energies of O(100) MeV pass through a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), they deposit energy in the form of electromagnetic showers. Methods to reconstruct the energy of these showers in LArTPCs often rely on the combination of a clustering algorithm and a linear calibration between the shower energy and charge contained in the cluster. This reconstruction process could be improved through the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN). Here we discuss the performance of various CNN-based models on simulated LArTPC images, and then compare the best performing models to a typical linear calibration algorithm.more »We show that the CNN method is able to address inefficiencies caused by unresponsive wires in LArTPCs and reconstruct a larger fraction of imperfect events to within 5 % accuracy compared with the linear algorithm.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. Abstract Wire-Cell is a 3D event reconstruction package for liquid argon time projection chambers. Through geometry, time, and drifted charge from multiple readout wire planes, 3D space points with associated charge are reconstructed prior to the pattern recognition stage. Pattern recognition techniques, including track trajectory and d Q /d x (ionization charge per unit length) fitting, 3D neutrino vertex fitting, track and shower separation, particle-level clustering, and particle identification are then applied on these 3D space points as well as the original 2D projection measurements. A deep neural network is developed to enhance the reconstruction of the neutrino interaction vertex.more »Compared to traditional algorithms, the deep neural network boosts the vertex efficiency by a relative 30% for charged-current ν e interactions. This pattern recognition achieves 80–90% reconstruction efficiencies for primary leptons, after a 65.8% (72.9%) vertex efficiency for charged-current ν e (ν μ ) interactions. Based on the resulting reconstructed particles and their kinematics, we also achieve 15-20% energy reconstruction resolutions for charged-current neutrino interactions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Abstract This article presents the reconstruction of the electromagnetic activity from electrons and photons (showers) used in the MicroBooNE deep learning-based low energy electron search. The reconstruction algorithm uses a combination of traditional and deep learning-based techniques to estimate shower energies. We validate these predictions using two ν μ -sourced data samples: charged/neutral current interactions with final state neutral pions and charged current interactions in which the muon stops and decays within the detector producing a Michel electron. Both the neutral pion sample and Michel electron sample demonstrate agreement between data and simulation. Further, the absolute shower energy scale ismore »shown to be consistent with the relevant physical constant of each sample: the neutral pion mass peak and the Michel energy cutoff.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Abstract Accurate knowledge of electron transport properties is vital to understanding the information provided by liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs). Ionization electron drift-lifetime, local electric field distortions caused by positive ion accumulation, and electron diffusion can all significantly impact the measured signal waveforms. This paper presents a measurement of the effective longitudinal electron diffusion coefficient, D L , in MicroBooNE at the nominal electric field strength of 273.9 V/cm. Historically, this measurement has been made in LArTPC prototype detectors. This represents the first measurement in a large-scale (85 tonne active volume) LArTPC operating in a neutrino beam. This ismore »the largest dataset ever used for this measurement. Using a sample of ∼70,000 through-going cosmic ray muon tracks tagged with MicroBooNE's cosmic ray tagger system, we measure D L = 3.74 +0.28 -0.29 cm 2 /s.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022