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  1. Abstract

    The formation of the first supermassive black holes is expected to have occurred in some most pronounced matter and galaxy overdensities in the early universe. We have conducted a submillimeter wavelength continuum survey of 54z∼ 6 quasars using the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometre Array-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to study the environments aroundz∼ 6 quasars. We identified 170 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with above 3.5σdetections in 450 or 850μm maps. Their far-IR luminosities are (2.2–6.4) × 1012L, and their star formation rates are ∼400–1200Myr−1. We also calculated the SMGs’ differential and cumulative number counts in a combined area of ∼620 arcmin2. To a 4σdetection (at ∼5.5 mJy), SMGs’ overdensity is0.680.19+0.21(±0.19), exceeding the blank-field source counts by a factor of 1.68. We find that 13/54 quasars show overdensities (at ∼5.5 mJy) ofδSMG∼ 1.5–5.4. The combined area of these 13 quasars exceeds the blank-field counts with the overdensity to 5.5 mJy ofδSMG2.460.55+0.64(±0.25) in the regions of ∼150 arcmin2. However, the excess is insignificant on the bright end (e.g., 7.5 mJy). We also compare results with previous environmental studies of Lyαemitters and Lyman break galaxies on a similar scale. Our survey presents the first systematic study of the environment of quasars atz∼ 6. The newly discovered SMGs provide essential candidates for follow-up spectroscopic observations to test whether they reside in the same large-scale structures as the quasars and search for protoclusters at an early epoch.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    With its unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has opened a new window for time-domain discoveries in the infrared. Here we report observations in the only field that has received four epochs (spanning 126 days) of JWST NIRCam observations in Cycle 1. This field is toward MACS J0416.1−2403, which is a rich galaxy cluster at redshiftz= 0.4 and is one of the Hubble Frontier Fields. We have discovered 14 transients from these data. Twelve of these transients happened in three galaxies (withz= 0.94, 1.01, and 2.091) crossing a lensing caustic of the cluster, and these transients are highly magnified by gravitational lensing. These 12 transients are likely of a similar nature to those previously reported based on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data in this field, i.e., individual stars in the highly magnified arcs. However, these 12 could not have been found by HST because they were too red and too faint. The other two transients are associated with background galaxies (z= 2.205 and 0.7093) that are only moderately magnified, and they are likely supernovae. They indicate a demagnified supernova surface density, when monitored at a time cadence of a few months to a ∼3–4μm survey limit of AB ∼28.5 mag, of ∼0.5 arcmin−2integrated toz≈ 2. This survey depth is beyond the capability of HST but can be easily reached by JWST.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 22, 2024
  3. Abstract The UltraViolet imaging of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey Fields (UVCANDELS) program provides Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/UVIS F275W imaging for four CANDELS fields. We combine this UV imaging with existing HST/near-IR grism spectroscopy from 3D-HST+AGHAST to directly compare the resolved rest-frame UV and H α emission for a sample of 979 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5, spanning a range in stellar mass of 10 8−11.5 M ⊙ . Using a stacking analysis, we perform a resolved comparison between homogenized maps of rest-UV and H α to compute the average UV-to-H α luminosity ratio (an indicator of burstiness in star formation) as a function of galactocentric radius. We find that galaxies below stellar mass of ∼10 9.5 M ⊙ , at all radii, have a UV-to-H α ratio higher than the equilibrium value expected from constant star formation, indicating a significant contribution from bursty star formation. Even for galaxies with stellar mass ≳10 9.5 M ⊙ , the UV-to-H α ratio is elevated toward their outskirts ( R / R eff > 1.5), suggesting that bursty star formation is likely prevalent in the outskirts of even the most massive galaxies, but is likely overshadowed by their brighter cores. Furthermore, we present the UV-to-H α ratio as a function of galaxy surface brightness, a proxy for stellar mass surface density, and find that regions below ∼10 7.5 M ⊙ kpc −2 are consistent with bursty star formation, regardless of their galaxy stellar mass, potentially suggesting that local star formation is independent of global galaxy properties at the smallest scales. Last, we find galaxies at z > 1.1 to have bursty star formation, regardless of radius or surface brightness. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 24, 2024
  4. Abstract

    We present near-infrared (NIR) ground-basedY,J,H, andKimaging obtained in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) North Ecliptic Pole Time Domain Field (NEP TDF) using the MMT-Magellan Infrared Imager and Spectrometer on the MMT. These new observations cover a field of approximately 230 arcmin2inY,H, andK,and 313 arcmin2inJ. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate a 1σdepth relative to the background sky of (Y, J, H, K) = (23.80, 23.53, 23.13, 23.28) in AB magnitudes for point sources at a 95% completeness level. These observations are part of the ground-based effort to characterize this region of the sky, supplementing space-based data obtained with Chandra, NuSTAR, XMM, AstroSat, Hubble Space Telescope, and JWST. This paper describes the observations and reduction of the NIR imaging and combines these NIR data with archival imaging in the visible, obtained with the Subaru Hyper-Suprime-Cam, to produce a merged catalog of 57,501 sources. The new observations reported here, plus the corresponding multiwavelength catalog, will provide a baseline for time-domain studies of bright sources in the NEP TDF.

     
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  5. Abstract

    We report the discovery of four galaxy candidates observed 450–600 Myr after the Big Bang with photometric redshifts betweenz∼ 8.3 and 10.2 measured using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam imaging of the galaxy cluster WHL0137−08 observed in eight filters spanning 0.8–5.0μm, plus nine Hubble Space Telescope filters spanning 0.4–1.7μm. One candidate is gravitationally lensed with a magnification ofμ∼ 8, while the other three are located in a nearby NIRCam module with expected magnifications ofμ≲ 1.1. Using SED fitting, we estimate the stellar masses of these galaxies are typically in the rangelogM/M= 8.3–8.7. All appear young, with mass-weighted ages <240 Myr, low dust contentAV< 0.15 mag, and specific star formation rates sSFR ∼0.25–10 Gyr−1for most. Onez∼ 9 candidate is consistent with an age <5 Myr and an sSFR ∼10 Gyr−1, as inferred from a strong F444W excess, implying [Oiii]+Hβrest-frame equivalent width ∼2000 Å, although an olderz∼ 10 object is also allowed. Anotherz∼ 9 candidate is lensed into an arc 2.″4 long with a magnification ofμ∼ 8. This arc is the most spatially resolved galaxy atz∼ 9 known to date, revealing structures ∼30 pc across. Follow-up spectroscopy of WHL0137−08 with JWST/NIRSpec will be useful to spectroscopically confirm these high-redshift galaxy candidates and to study their physical properties in more detail.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We derive the spatial and wavelength behavior of dust attenuation in the multiple-armed spiral galaxy VV 191b using backlighting by the superimposed elliptical system VV 191a in a pair with an exceptionally favorable geometry for this measurement. Imaging using the James Webb Space Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope spans the wavelength range 0.3–4.5μm with high angular resolution, tracing the dust in detail from 0.6–1.5μm. Distinct dust lanes continue well beyond the bright spiral arms, and trace a complex web, with a very sharp radial cutoff near 1.7 Petrosian radii. We present attenuation profiles and coverage statistics in each band at radii 14–21 kpc. We derive the attenuation law with wavelength; the data both within and between the dust lanes clearly favor a stronger reddening behavior (R=AV/EBV≈ 2.0 between 0.6 and 0.9μm, approaching unity by 1.5μm) than found for starbursts and star-forming regions of galaxies. Power-law extinction behavior ∝λβgivesβ= 2.1 from 0.6–0.9μm.Rdecreases at increasing wavelengths (R≈ 1.1 between 0.9 and 1.5μm), whileβsteepens to 2.5. Mixing regions of different column density flattens the wavelength behavior, so these results suggest a different grain population than in our vicinity. The NIRCam images reveal a lens arc and counterimage from a background galaxy atz≈ 1, spanning 90° azimuthally at 2.″8 from the foreground elliptical-galaxy nucleus, and an additional weakly lensed galaxy. The lens model and imaging data give a mass/light ratioM/LB= 7.6 in solar units within the Einstein radius 2.0 kpc.

     
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  7. Abstract

    The Time Domain Field (TDF) near the North Ecliptic Pole in JWST’s continuous-viewing zone will become a premier “blank field” for extragalactic science. JWST/NIRCam data in a 16 arcmin2portion of the TDF identify 4.4μm counterparts for 62 of 63 3 GHz sources withS(3 GHz) > 5μJy. The one unidentified radio source may be a lobe of a nearby Seyfert galaxy, or it may be an infrared-faint radio source. The bulk properties of the radio-host galaxies are consistent with those found by previous work: redshifts range from 0.14–4.4 with a median redshift of 1.33. The radio emission arises primarily from star formation in ∼2/3 of the sample and from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in ∼1/3, but just over half the sample shows evidence for an AGN either in the spectral energy distribution or by radio excess. All but three counterparts are brighter than magnitude 23 AB at 4.4μm, and the exquisite resolution of JWST identifies correct counterparts for sources for which observations with lower angular resolution would misidentify a nearby bright source as the counterpart when the correct one is faint and red. Up to 11% of counterparts might have been unidentified or misidentified absent NIRCam observations.

     
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  8. ABSTRACT We explore unsupervised machine learning for galaxy morphology analyses using a combination of feature extraction with a vector-quantized variational autoencoder (VQ-VAE) and hierarchical clustering (HC). We propose a new methodology that includes: (1) consideration of the clustering performance simultaneously when learning features from images; (2) allowing for various distance thresholds within the HC algorithm; (3) using the galaxy orientation to determine the number of clusters. This set-up provides 27 clusters created with this unsupervised learning that we show are well separated based on galaxy shape and structure (e.g. Sérsic index, concentration, asymmetry, Gini coefficient). These resulting clusters also correlate well with physical properties such as the colour–magnitude diagram, and span the range of scaling relations such as mass versus size amongst the different machine-defined clusters. When we merge these multiple clusters into two large preliminary clusters to provide a binary classification, an accuracy of $\sim 87{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ is reached using an imbalanced data set, matching real galaxy distributions, which includes 22.7 per cent early-type galaxies and 77.3 per cent late-type galaxies. Comparing the given clusters with classic Hubble types (ellipticals, lenticulars, early spirals, late spirals, and irregulars), we show that there is an intrinsic vagueness in visual classification systems, in particular galaxies with transitional features such as lenticulars and early spirals. Based on this, the main result in this work is not how well our unsupervised method matches visual classifications and physical properties, but that the method provides an independent classification that may be more physically meaningful than any visually based ones. 
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  9. Abstract

    The first deep field images from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) of the galaxy cluster SMACS J0723.3-7327 reveal a wealth of new lensed images at uncharted infrared wavelengths, with unprecedented depth and resolution. Here we securely identify 14 new sets of multiply imaged galaxies totaling 42 images, adding to the five sets of bright and multiply imaged galaxies already known from Hubble Space Telescope data. We find examples of arcs crossing critical curves, allowing detailed community follow-up, such as JWST spectroscopy for precise redshift determinations, and measurements of the chemical abundances and of the detailed internal gas dynamics of very distant, young galaxies. One such arc contains a pair of compact knots that are magnified by a factor of hundreds, and features a microlensed transient. We also detect an Einstein cross candidate only visible thanks to JWST’s superb resolution. Our parametric lens model is available through the following link (https://www.dropbox.com/sh/gwup2lvks0jsqe5/AAC2RRSKce0aX-lIFCc9vhBXa?dl=0) and will be regularly updated using additional spectroscopic redshifts. The model is constrained by 16 of these sets of multiply imaged galaxies, three of which have spectroscopic redshifts, and reproduces the multiple images to better than an rms of 0.″5, allowing for accurate magnification estimates of high-redshift galaxies. The intracluster light extends beyond the cluster members, exhibiting large-scale features that suggest a significant past dynamical disturbance. This work represents a first taste of the enhanced power JWST will have for lensing-related science.

     
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  10. Abstract

    Using the first epoch of four-band NIRCam observations obtained by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Prime Extragalactic Areas for Reionization and Lensing Science Program in the Spitzer IRAC Dark Field, we search for F150W and F200W dropouts. In 14.2 arcmin2, we have found eight F150W dropouts and eight F200W dropouts, all brighter than 27.5 mag (the brightest being ∼24 mag) in the band to the red side of the break. As they are detected in multiple bands, these must be real objects. Their nature, however, is unclear, and characterizing their properties is important for realizing the full potential of JWST. If the observed color decrements are due to the Lyman break, these objects should be atz≳ 11.7 andz≳ 15.4, respectively. The color diagnostics show that at least four F150W dropouts are far away from the usual contaminators encountered in dropout searches (red galaxies at much lower redshifts or brown dwarf stars). While the diagnostics of the F200W dropouts are less certain due to the limited number of passbands, at least one of them is likely not a known type of contaminant, and the rest are consistent with either high-redshift galaxies with evolved stellar populations or old galaxies atz≈ 3–8. If a significant fraction of our dropouts are indeed atz≳ 12, we have to face the severe problem of explaining their high luminosities and number densities. Spectroscopic identifications of such objects are urgently needed.

     
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