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  1. The micronutrient iron plays a major role in setting the magnitude and distribution of primary production across the global ocean. As such, an understanding of the sources, sinks, and internal cycling processes that drive the oceanic distribution of iron is key to unlocking iron's role in the global carbon cycle and climate, both today and in the geologic past. Iron isotopic analyses of seawater have emerged as a transformative tool for diagnosing iron sources to the ocean and tracing biogeochemical processes. In this review, we summarize the end-member isotope signatures of different iron source fluxes and highlight the novel insights into iron provenance gained using this tracer. We also review ways in which iron isotope fractionation might be used to understand internal oceanic cycling of iron, including speciation changes, biological uptake, and particle scavenging. We conclude with an overview of future research needed to expand the utilization of this cutting-edge tracer. 
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  3. Abstract

    Despite the Pacific being the location of the earliest seawater Cd studies, the processes which control Cd distributions in this region remain incompletely understood, largely due to the sparsity of data. Here, we present dissolved Cd and δ114Cd data from the US GEOTRACES GP15 meridional transect along 152°W from the Alaskan margin to the equatorial Pacific. Our examination of this region's surface ocean Cd isotope systematics is consistent with previous observations, showing a stark disparity between northern Cd‐rich high‐nutrient low‐chlorophyll waters and Cd‐depleted waters of the subtropical and equatorial Pacific. Away from the margin, an open system model ably describes data in Cd‐depleted surface waters, but atmospheric inputs of isotopically light Cd likely play an important role in setting surface Cd isotope ratios (δ114Cd) at the lowest Cd concentrations. Below the surface, Southern Ocean processes and water mass mixing are the dominant control on Pacific Cd and δ114Cd distributions. Cd‐depleted Antarctic Intermediate Water has a far‐reaching effect on North Pacific intermediate waters as far as 47°N, contrasting with northern‐sourced Cd signatures in North Pacific Intermediate Water. Finally, we show that the previously identified negative Cd* signal at depth in the North Pacific is associated with the PO4maximum and is thus a consequence of an integrated regeneration signal of Cd and PO4at a slightly lower Cd:P ratio than the deep ocean ratio (0.35 mmol mol−1), rather than being related to in situ removal processes in low‐oxygen waters.

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  4. Abstract

    Atmospheric dust is an important source of the micronutrient Fe to the oceans. Although relatively insoluble mineral Fe is assumed to be the most important component of dust, a relatively small yet highly soluble anthropogenic component may also be significant. However, quantifying the importance of anthropogenic Fe to the global oceans requires a tracer which can be used to identify and constrain anthropogenic aerosols in situ. Here, we present Fe isotope (δ56Fe) data from North Atlantic aerosol samples from the GEOTRACES GA03 section. While soluble aerosol samples collected near the Sahara have near-crustal δ56Fe, soluble aerosols from near North America and Europe instead have remarkably fractionated δ56Fe values (as light as −1.6‰). Here, we use these observations to fingerprint anthropogenic combustion sources, and to refine aerosol deposition modeling. We show that soluble anthropogenic aerosol Fe flux to the global surface oceans is highly likely to be underestimated, even in the dusty North Atlantic.

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  5. The stoichiometry of biological components and their influence on dissolved distributions have long been of interest in the study of the oceans. Cobalt has the smallest oceanic inventory of inorganic micronutrients and hence is particularly vulnerable to influence by internal oceanic processes including euphotic zone uptake, remineralization, and scavenging. Here we observe not only large variations in dCo : P stoichiometry but also the acceleration of those dCo : P ratios in the upper water column in response to several environmental processes. The ecological stoichiometry of total dissolved cobalt (dCo) was examined using data from a US North Atlantic GEOTRACES transect and from a zonal South Atlantic GEOTRACES-compliant transect (GA03/3_e and GAc01) by Redfieldian analysis of its statistical relationships with the macronutrient phosphate. Trends in the dissolved cobalt to phosphate (dCo : P) stoichiometric relationships were evident in the basin-scale vertical structure of cobalt, with positive dCo : P slopes in the euphotic zone and negative slopes found in the ocean interior and in coastal environments. The euphotic positive slopes were often found to accelerate towards the surface and this was interpreted as being due to the combined influence of depleted phosphate, phosphorus-sparing (conserving) mechanisms, increased alkaline phosphatase metalloenzyme production (a zinc or perhaps cobalt enzyme), and biochemical substitution of Co for depleted Zn. Consistent with this, dissolved Zn (dZn) was found to be drawn down to only 2-fold more than dCo, despite being more than 18-fold more abundant in the ocean interior. Particulate cobalt concentrations increased in abundance from the base of the euphotic zone to become  ∼  10 % of the overall cobalt inventory in the upper euphotic zone with high stoichiometric values of  ∼  400 µmol Co mol−1 P. Metaproteomic results from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station found cyanobacterial isoforms of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme to be prevalent in the upper water column, as well as a sulfolipid biosynthesis protein indicative of P sparing. The negative dCo : P relationships in the ocean interior became increasingly vertical with depth, and were consistent with the sum of scavenging and remineralization processes (as shown by their dCo : P vector sums). Attenuation of the remineralization with depth resulted in the increasingly vertical dCo : P relationships. Analysis of particulate Co with particulate Mn and particulate phosphate also showed positive linear relationships below the euphotic zone, consistent with the presence and increased relative influence of Mn oxide particles involved in scavenging. Visualization of dCo : P slopes across an ocean section revealed hotspots of scavenging and remineralization, such as at the hydrothermal vents and below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) region, respectively, while that of an estimate of Co* illustrated stoichiometrically depleted values in the mesopelagic and deep ocean due to scavenging. This study provides insights into the coupling between the dissolved and particulate phase that ultimately creates Redfield stoichiometric ratios, demonstrating that the coupling is not an instantaneous process and is influenced by the element inventory and rate of exchange between phases. Cobalt's small water column inventory and the influence of external factors on its biotic stoichiometry can erode its limited inertia and result in an acceleration of the dissolved stoichiometry towards that of the particulate phase in the upper euphotic zone. As human use of cobalt grows exponentially with widespread adoption of lithium ion batteries, there is a potential to affect the limited biogeochemical inertia of cobalt and its resultant ecology in the oceanic euphotic zone. 
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