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    We explore models of massive (>1010 M⊙) satellite quenching in massive clusters at z ≳ 1 using an MCMC framework, focusing on two primary parameters: Rquench (the host-centric radius at which quenching begins) and τquench (the time-scale upon which a satellite quenches after crossing Rquench). Our MCMC analysis shows two local maxima in the 1D posterior probability distribution of Rquench at approximately 0.25 and 1.0 R200. Analysing four distinct solutions in the τquench–Rquench parameter space, nearly all of which yield quiescent fractions consistent with observational data from the GOGREEN survey, we investigate whether these solutions represent distinct quenching pathways and find that they can be separated between ‘starvation’ and ‘core quenching’ scenarios. The starvation pathway is characterized by quenching time-scales that are roughly consistent with the total cold gas (H2 + H i) depletion time-scale at intermediate z, while core quenching is characterized by satellites with relatively high line-of-sight velocities that quench on short time-scales (∼0.25 Gyr) after reaching the inner region of the cluster (<0.30 R200). Lastly, we break the degeneracy between these solutions by comparing the observed properties of transition galaxies from the GOGREEN survey. We conclude that only the ‘starvation’ pathway is consistent with the projected phase-space distribution and relative abundance of transition galaxies at z ∼ 1. However, we acknowledge that ram pressure might contribute as a secondary quenching mechanism.

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    Motivated by spectroscopic confirmation of three overdense regions in the COSMOS field at z ∼ 3.35, we analyse the uniquely deep multiwavelength photometry and extensive spectroscopy available in the field to identify any further related structure. We construct a three-dimensional density map using the Voronoi tesselation Monte Carlo method and find additional regions of significant overdensity. Here, we present and examine a set of six overdense structures at 3.20 < z < 3.45 in the COSMOS field, the most well-characterized of which, PCl J0959 + 0235, has 80 spectroscopically confirmed members and an estimated mass of 1.35 × 1015 M⊙, and is modelled to virialize at z ∼ 1.5−2.0. These structures contain 10 overdense peaks with >5σ overdensity separated by up to 70 cMpc, suggestive of a proto-supercluster similar to the Hyperion system at z ∼ 2.45. Upcoming photometric surveys with JWST such as COSMOS-Web, and further spectroscopic follow-up will enable more extensive analysis of the evolutionary effects that such an environment may have on its component galaxies at these early times.

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  3. Abstract

    We investigate the resolved kinematics of the molecular gas, as traced by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in CO (2−1), of 25 cluster member galaxies across three different clusters at a redshift ofz∼ 1.6. This is the first large-scale analysis of the molecular gas kinematics of cluster galaxies at this redshift. By separately estimating the rotation curve of the approaching and receding sides of each galaxy via kinematic modeling, we quantify the difference in total circular velocity to characterize the overall kinematic asymmetry of each galaxy. 3/14 of the galaxies in our sample that we are able to model have similar degrees of asymmetry as that observed in galaxies in the field at similar redshift based on observations of mainly ionized gas. However, this leaves 11/14 galaxies in our sample with significantly higher asymmetry, and some of these galaxies have degrees of asymmetry of up to ∼50 times higher than field galaxies observed at similar redshift. Some of these extreme cases also have one-sided tail-like morphology seen in the molecular gas, supporting a scenario of tidal and/or ram pressure interaction. Such stark differences in the kinematic asymmetry in clusters versus the field suggest the evolutionary influence of dense environments, established as being a major driver of galaxy evolution at low redshift, is also active in the high-redshift universe.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  4. Within chemistry education, there are various curricular and pedagogical approaches that aim to improve teaching and learning in chemistry. Efforts to characterize these transformations have primarily focused on student reasoning and performance, and little work has been done to explore student perceptions of curricular and pedagogical transformations and whether these perceptions align with the transformational intent. To complement our previous work on the Organic Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything (OCLUE) curriculum, we developed this exploratory study to determine if students had perceived the goals of the transformation. As in our previous research on OCLUE, we compared perceptions between OCLUE and a more traditional organic chemistry course. Using inductive and deductive qualitative methodologies, we analyzed student responses to three open-eneded questions focused on how students perceived they were expected to think, what they found most difficult, and how they perceived they were assessed. The findings were classified into three superodinate themes: one where students perceived they were expected to learn things as rote knowledge, such as memorization (“Rote Knowledge”), another where students perceived they were expected to use their knowledge (“Use of Knowledge”), and responses that used vague, generalized language, were uninformative, or did not address the questions asked (“Other”). Students in these two courses responded very differently to the open-ended questions with students in OCLUE being more likely to perceive they were expected to use their knowledge, while students in the traditional course reported rote learning or memorization more frequently. As the findings evolved, our interpretations and discussions were influenced by sociocultural perspectives and other cultural frameworks. We believe this approach can provide meaningful insights into transformational intent and certain features of classroom cultures. 
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    Recent observations have shown that the environmental quenching of galaxies at z ∼ 1 is qualitatively different to that in the local Universe. However, the physical origin of these differences has not yet been elucidated. In addition, while low-redshift comparisons between observed environmental trends and the predictions of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are now routine, there have been relatively few comparisons at higher redshifts to date. Here we confront three state-of-the-art suites of simulations (BAHAMAS+MACSIS, EAGLE+Hydrangea, IllustrisTNG) with state-of-the-art observations of the field and cluster environments from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA and GOGREEN surveys, respectively, at z ∼ 1 to assess the realism of the simulations and gain insight into the evolution of environmental quenching. We show that while the simulations generally reproduce the stellar content and the stellar mass functions of quiescent and star-forming galaxies in the field, all the simulations struggle to capture the observed quenching of satellites in the cluster environment, in that they are overly efficient at quenching low-mass satellites. Furthermore, two of the suites do not sufficiently quench the highest mass galaxies in clusters, perhaps a result of insufficient feedback from AGN. The origin of the discrepancy at low stellar masses ($M_* \lesssim 10^{10}$ M⊙), which is present in all the simulations in spite of large differences in resolution, feedback implementations, and hydrodynamical solvers, is unclear. The next generation of simulations, which will push to significantly higher resolution and also include explicit modelling of the cold interstellar medium, may help us to shed light on the low-mass tension.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2023
  6. This study is a follow up to two earlier studies characterizing student real-time use of mechanistic arrows. In these previous studies, students were asked to predict a product by drawing a curved arrow mechanism using an interface that allowed recording and replay of student actions. In the present study two different student cohorts responded to the same tasks as the original studies: a cohort who were enrolled in a traditional organic course, and a cohort who were part of a transformed organic course (Organic Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything, OCLUE). Both cohorts improved in their ability to predict an appropriate product over the two semesters, and we found little meaningful difference in the ability of students from either cohort to predict the outcome of a familiar reaction. However, students in the OCLUE cohort were more likely to draw mechanistic arrows than the students from the traditional course. In contrast, when the task involved predicting the product of an unfamiliar reaction, OCLUE students were over three times more likely to draw mechanistically reasonable steps and produce a plausible product than students from the traditional cohort. We propose that the differences between the two cohorts emerge from the following: (1) explicit attempts in the OCLUE course to link drawing reactions mechanisms using the electron pushing formalism to the scientific practice of constructing explanations. It is our contention that this approach changes the arrow pushing mechanism from a skill to the construction of a model which students can use to predict and explain outcomes; and (2) the numerous opportunities in the OCLUE course to try out ideas without penalty, leading to a willingness to try to determine outcomes in unfamiliar situations. 
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    As the Milky Way and its satellite system become more entrenched in near field cosmology efforts, the need for an accurate mass estimate of the Milky Way’s dark matter halo is increasingly critical. With the second and early third data releases of stellar proper motions from Gaia, several groups calculated full 6D phase-space information for the population of Milky Way satellite galaxies. Utilizing these data in comparison to subhalo properties drawn from the Phat ELVIS simulations, we constrain the Milky Way dark matter halo mass to be ∼1–1.2 × 1012 M⊙. We find that the kinematics of subhaloes drawn from more- or less-massive hosts (i.e. >1.2 × 1012 M⊙ or <1012 M⊙) are inconsistent, at the 3σ confidence level, with the observed velocities of the Milky Way satellites. The preferred host halo mass for the Milky Way is largely insensitive to the exclusion of systems associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud, changes in galaxy formation thresholds, and variations in observational completeness. As more Milky Way satellites are discovered, their velocities (radial, tangential, and total) plus Galactocentric distances will provide further insight into the mass of the Milky Way dark matter halo.

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  8. Abstract We present spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy of 15 galaxies at z ∼ 0.8 drawn from the DEEP2 survey. We analyze H α +[N ii ], [S ii ], and [S iii ] emission on kiloparsec scales to explore which mechanisms are powering emission lines at high redshifts, testing which processes may be responsible for the well-known offset of high-redshift galaxies from the z ∼ 0 locus in the [O iii ]/H β versus [N ii ]/H α Baldwin—Phillips—Terlevich (BPT) excitation diagram. We study spatially resolved emission-line maps to examine evidence for active galactic nuclei (AGN), shocks, diffuse ionized gas (DIG), or escaping ionizing radiation, all of which may contribute to the BPT offsets observed in our sample. We do not find significant evidence of AGN in our sample and quantify that, on average, AGN would need to contribute ∼25% of the H α flux in the central resolution element in order to cause the observed BPT offsets. We find weak (2 σ ) evidence of DIG emission at low surface brightnesses, yielding an implied total DIG emission fraction of ∼20%, which is not significant enough to be the dominant emission line driver in our sample. In general we find that the observed emission is dominated by star-forming H ii regions. We discuss trends with demographic properties and the possible role of α -enhanced abundance patterns in the emission spectra of high-redshift galaxies. Our results indicate that photoionization modeling with stellar population synthesis inputs is a valid tool to explore the specific star formation properties which may cause BPT offsets, to be explored in future work. 
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