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  1. Abstract We present a population of 19 radio-luminous supernovae (SNe) with emission reaching L ν ∼ 10 26 –10 29 erg s −1 Hz −1 in the first epoch of the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS) at 2–4 GHz. Our sample includes one long gamma-ray burst, SN 2017iuk/GRB 171205A, and 18 core-collapse SNe detected at ≈1–60 yr after explosion. No thermonuclear explosion shows evidence for bright radio emission, and hydrogen-poor progenitors dominate the subsample of core-collapse events with spectroscopic classification at the time of explosion (79%). We interpret these findings in the context of the expected radio emission from the forward shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). We conclude that these observations require a departure from the single wind–like density profile (i.e., ρ CSM ∝ r −2 ) that is expected around massive stars and/or from a spherical Newtonian shock. Viable alternatives include the shock interaction with a detached, dense shell of CSM formed by a large effective progenitor mass-loss rate, M ̇ ∼ 10 − 4 – 10 − 1 M ⊙ yr −1 (for an assumed wind velocity of 1000 km s −1 ); emission from an off-axis relativistic jet entering our line of sight; ormore »the emergence of emission from a newly born pulsar-wind nebula. The relativistic SN 2012ap that is detected 5.7 and 8.5 yr after explosion with L ν ∼ 10 28 erg s −1 Hz −1 might constitute the first detections of an off-axis jet+cocoon system in a massive star. However, none of the VLASS SNe with archival data points are consistent with our model off-axis jet light curves. Future multiwavelength observations will distinguish among these scenarios. Our VLASS source catalogs, which were used to perform the VLASS cross-matching, are publicly available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4895112 .« less
  2. ABSTRACT Fast-rotating pulsars and magnetars have been suggested as the central engines of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) and fast radio bursts, and this scenario naturally predicts non-thermal synchrotron emission from their nascent pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). We report results of high-frequency radio observations with ALMA and NOEMA for three SLSNe (SN 2015bn, SN 2016ard, and SN 2017egm), and present a detailed theoretical model to calculate non-thermal emission from PWNe with an age of ∼1−3 yr. We find that the ALMA data disfavours a PWN model motivated by the Crab nebula for SN 2015bn and SN 2017egm, and argue that this tension can be resolved if the nebular magnetization is very high or very low. Such models can be tested by future MeV–GeV gamma-ray telescopes such as AMEGO.