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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. The analytical chemistry of phosphorus-containing materials is often impeded by the long measurement times and relatively large sample masses needed for 31 P NMR spectroscopy, by the scarcity and access limitations of synchrotron beamlines operating in the energy range of the P K-edge, by the challenges posed by species interconversion during liquid extraction, and by the considerable air-sensitivity typical of many phosphorus-containing materials and nanophases. To this end, we report the design and operation of a new laboratory-based spectrometer to simultaneously perform P Kα and Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) while being housed in a research-grade controlled-atmosphere glovebox. Demonstration studies on nickel phosphide nanophases illustrate the importance of air-free XES and the value of simultaneous Kα and Kβ spectroscopy for identifying the P oxidation state and for investigating nanoscale influences on valence level electronic structures. 
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  4. This tutorial review presents our perspective on designing organic molecules for the functionalization of inorganic nanomaterial surfaces, through the model of an “anchor-functionality” paradigm. This “anchor-functionality” paradigm is a streamlined design strategy developed from a comprehensive range of materials ( e.g. , lead halide perovskites, II–VI semiconductors, III–V semiconductors, metal oxides, diamonds, carbon dots, silicon, etc. ) and applications ( e.g. , light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, lasers, photonic cavities, photocatalysis, fluorescence imaging, photo dynamic therapy, drug delivery, etc. ). The structure of this organic interface modifier comprises two key components: anchor groups binding to inorganic surfaces and functional groups that optimize their performance in specific applications. To help readers better understand and utilize this approach, the roles of different anchor groups and different functional groups are discussed and explained through their interactions with inorganic materials and external environments. 
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