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  1. ABSTRACT The progenitor system of the compact binary merger GW190425 had a total mass of $3.4^{+0.3}_{-0.1}$ M⊙ (90th-percentile confidence region) as measured from its gravitational wave signal. This mass is significantly different from the Milky Way (MW) population of binary neutron stars (BNSs) that are expected to merge in a Hubble time and from that of the first BNS merger, GW170817. Here, we explore the expected electromagnetic (EM) signatures of such a system. We make several astrophysically motivated assumptions to further constrain the parameters of GW190425. By simply assuming that both components were NSs, we reduce the possible component masses significantly,more »finding $m_{1}=1.85^{+0.27}_{-0.19}$ M⊙ and $m_{2}=1.47^{+0.16}_{-0.18}$ M⊙. However, if the GW190425 progenitor system was an NS–black hole (BH) merger, we find best-fitting parameters $m_{1}=2.19^{+0.21}_{-0.17}$ M⊙ and $m_{2}=1.26^{+0.10}_{-0.08}$ M⊙. For a well-motivated BNS system where the lighter NS has a mass similar to the mass of non-recycled NSs in MW BNS systems, we find $m_{1}=2.03^{+0.15}_{-0.14}$ M⊙ and m2 = 1.35 ± 0.09 M⊙, corresponding to only 7 per cent mass uncertainties. For all scenarios, we expect a prompt collapse of the resulting remnant to a BH. Examining detailed models with component masses similar to our best-fitting results, we find the EM counterpart to GW190425 is expected to be significantly redder and fainter than that of GW170817. We find that almost all reported search observations were too shallow to detect the expected counterpart to GW190425. If the LIGO–Virgo Collaboration promptly provides the chirp mass, the astronomical community can adapt their observations to improve the likelihood of detecting a counterpart for similarly ‘high-mass’ BNS systems.« less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. Abstract We present the 30 minutes cadence Kepler/K2 light curve of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2018agk, covering approximately one week before explosion, the full rise phase, and the decline until 40 days after peak. We additionally present ground-based observations in multiple bands within the same time range, including the 1 day cadence DECam observations within the first ∼5 days after the first light. The Kepler early light curve is fully consistent with a single power-law rise, without evidence of any bump feature. We compare SN 2018agk with a sample of other SNe Ia without early excess fluxmore »from the literature. We find that SNe Ia without excess flux have slowly evolving early colors in a narrow range ( g − i ≈ −0.20 ± 0.20 mag) within the first ∼10 days. On the other hand, among SNe Ia detected with excess, SN 2017cbv and SN 2018oh tend to be bluer, while iPTF16abc’s evolution is similar to normal SNe Ia without excess in g − i . We further compare the Kepler light curve of SN 2018agk with companion-interaction models, and rule out the existence of a typical nondegenerate companion undergoing Roche lobe overflow at viewing angles smaller than 45°.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. ABSTRACT The ever-increasing sensitivity of the network of gravitational-wave detectors has resulted in the accelerated rate of detections from compact binary coalescence systems in the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Not only has the event rate increased, but also the distances to which phenomena can be detected, leading to a rise in the required sky volume coverage to search for counterparts. Additionally, the improvement of the detectors has resulted in the discovery of more compact binary mergers involving neutron stars, revitalizing dedicated follow-up campaigns. While significant effort has been made by the community to optimize singlemore »telescope observations, using both synoptic and galaxy-targeting methods, less effort has been paid to coordinated observations in a network. This is becoming crucial, as the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy has garnered interest around the globe, resulting in abundant networks of telescopes available to search for counterparts. In this paper, we extend some of the techniques developed for single telescopes to a telescope network. We describe simple modifications to these algorithms and demonstrate them on existing network examples. These algorithms are implemented in the open-source software gwemopt, used by some follow-up teams, for ease of use by the broader community.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present early-time (t < +50 d) observations of SN 2019muj (=ASASSN-19tr), one of the best-observed members of the peculiar SN Iax class. Ultraviolet and optical photometric and optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up started from ∼5 d before maximum light [tmax(B) on $58707.8$ MJD] and covers the photospheric phase. The early observations allow us to estimate the physical properties of the ejecta and characterize the possible divergence from a uniform chemical abundance structure. The estimated bolometric light-curve peaks at 1.05 × 1042 erg s−1 and indicates that only 0.031 M⊙ of 56Ni was produced, making SN 2019muj a moderate luminosity object in the Iaxmore »class with peak absolute magnitude of $M_\rm {V} = -16.4$ mag. The estimated date of explosion is t0 = $58698.2$ MJD and implies a short rise time of trise = 9.6 d in B band. We fit of the spectroscopic data by synthetic spectra, calculated via the radiative transfer code tardis. Adopting the partially stratified abundance template based on brighter SNe Iax provides a good match with SN 2019muj. However, without earlier spectra, the need for stratification cannot be stated in most of the elements, except carbon, which is allowed to appear in the outer layers only. SN 2019muj provides a unique opportunity to link extremely low-luminosity SNe Iax to well-studied, brighter SNe Iax.« less