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  1. Abstract

    Hibernation is widespread among mammals in a variety of environmental contexts. However, few experimental studies consider interspecific comparisons, which may provide insight into general patterns of hibernation strategies. We studied 13 species of free-living bats, including populations spread over thousands of kilometers and diverse habitats. We measured torpid metabolic rate (TMR) and evaporative water loss (two key parameters for understanding hibernation energetics) across a range of temperatures. There was no difference in minimum TMR among species (i.e., all species achieved similarly low torpid metabolic rate) but the temperature associated with minimum TMR varied among species. The minimum defended temperaturemore »(temperature below which TMR increased) varied from 8 °C to < 2 °C among species. Conversely, evaporative water loss varied among species, with species clustered in two groups representing high and low evaporative water loss. Notably, species that have suffered population declines due to white-nose syndrome fall in the high evaporative water loss group and less affected species in the low evaporative water loss group. Documenting general patterns of physiological diversity, and associated ecological implications, contributes to broader understanding of biodiversity, and may help predict which species are at greater risk of environmental and anthropogenic stressors.

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  2. Seebacher, Frank (Ed.)
    Abstract In 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists shared their ‘World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity’ with governmental leaders worldwide, calling for immediate action to halt the environmental degradation that threatens the systems that support life on Earth. A follow-up ‘Second Warning’ was released in 2017, with over 15 000 scientists as signatories, describing the lack of progress in adopting the sustainable practices necessary to safeguard the biosphere. In their ‘Second Warning’, Ripple and colleagues provided 13 ‘diverse and effective steps humanity can take to transition to sustainability.’ Here, we discuss how the field of conservation physiology can contribute to six ofmore »these goals: (i) prioritizing connected, well-managed reserves; (ii) halting the conversion of native habitats to maintain ecosystem services; (iii) restoring native plant communities; (iv) rewilding regions with native species; (v) developing policy instruments; and (vi) increasing outdoor education, societal engagement and reverence for nature. Throughout, we focus our recommendations on specific aspects of physiological function while acknowledging that the exact traits that will be useful in each context are often still being determined and refined. However, for each goal, we include a short case study to illustrate a specific physiological trait or group of traits that is already being utilized in that context. We conclude with suggestions for how conservation physiologists can broaden the impact of their science aimed at accomplishing the goals of the ‘Second Warning’. Overall, we provide an overview of how conservation physiology can contribute to addressing the grand socio-environmental challenges of our time.« less
  3. The major construction and initial-phase operation of a second-generation gravitational-wave detector, KAGRA, has been completed. The entire 3 km detector is installed underground in a mine in order to be isolated from background seismic vibrations on the surface. This allows us to achieve a good sensitivity at lowfrequencies and high stability of the detector. Bare-bones equipment for the interferometer operation has been installed and the first test runwas accomplished in March and April of 2016 with a rather simple configuration. The initial configuration of KAGRA is called iKAGRA. In this paper, we summarize the construction of KAGRA, including a studymore »of the advantages and challenges of building an underground detector, and the operation of the iKAGRA interferometer together with the geophysics interferometer that has been constructed in the same tunnel.« less