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Creators/Authors contains: "Cranmer, Kyle"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2021
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2021
  3. Many domains of science have developed complex simulations to describe phenomena of interest. While these simulations provide high-fidelity models, they are poorly suited for inference and lead to challenging inverse problems. We review the rapidly developing field of simulation-based inference and identify the forces giving additional momentum to the field. Finally, we describe how the frontier is expanding so that a broad audience can appreciate the profound influence these developments may have on science.

  4. Simulators often provide the best description of real-world phenomena. However, the probability density that they implicitly define is often intractable, leading to challenging inverse problems for inference. Recently, a number of techniques have been introduced in which a surrogate for the intractable density is learned, including normalizing flows and density ratio estimators. We show that additional information that characterizes the latent process can often be extracted from simulators and used to augment the training data for these surrogate models. We introduce several loss functions that leverage these augmented data and demonstrate that these techniques can improve sample efficiency and qualitymore »of inference.

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  5. Normalizing flows are a powerful tool for building expressive distributions in high dimensions. So far, most of the literature has concentrated on learning flows on Euclidean spaces. Some problems however, such as those involving angles, are defined on spaces with more complex geometries, such as tori or spheres. In this paper, we propose and compare expressive and numerically stable flows on such spaces. Our flows are built recursively on the dimension of the space, starting from flows on circles, closed intervals or spheres.
  6. Machine learning has played an important role in the analysis of high-energy physics data for decades. The emergence of deep learning in 2012 allowed for machine learning tools which could adeptly handle higher-dimensional and more complex problems than previously feasible. This review is aimed at the reader who is familiar with high-energy physics but not machine learning. The connections between machine learning and high-energy physics data analysis are explored, followed by an introduction to the core concepts of neural networks, examples of the key results demonstrating the power of deep learning for analysis of LHC data, and discussion of futuremore »prospects and concerns.« less