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  1. Abstract Jet classification is an important ingredient in measurements and searches for new physics at particle colliders, and secondary vertex reconstruction is a key intermediate step in building powerful jet classifiers. We use a neural network to perform vertex finding inside jets in order to improve the classification performance, with a focus on separation of bottom vs. charm flavor tagging. We implement a novel, universal set-to-graph model, which takes into account information from all tracks in a jet to determine if pairs of tracks originated from a common vertex. We explore different performance metrics and find our method to outperformmore »traditional approaches in accurate secondary vertex reconstruction. We also find that improved vertex finding leads to a significant improvement in jet classification performance.« less
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  6. Hierarchical clustering is a critical task in numerous domains. Many approaches are based on heuristics and the properties of the resulting clusterings are studied post hoc. However, in several applications, there is a natural cost function that can be used to characterize the quality of the clustering. In those cases, hierarchical clustering can be seen as a combinatorial optimization problem. To that end, we introduce a new approach based on A* search. We overcome the prohibitively large search space by combining A* with a novel \emph{trellis} data structure. This combination results in an exact algorithm that scales beyond previous statemore »of the art, from a search space with 10^12 trees to 10^15 trees, and an approximate algorithm that improves over baselines, even in enormous search spaces that contain more than 10^1000 trees. We empirically demonstrate that our method achieves substantially higher quality results than baselines for a particle physics use case and other clustering benchmarks. We describe how our method provides significantly improved theoretical bounds on the time and space complexity of A* for clustering.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2022
  7. Many domains of science have developed complex simulations to describe phenomena of interest. While these simulations provide high-fidelity models, they are poorly suited for inference and lead to challenging inverse problems. We review the rapidly developing field of simulation-based inference and identify the forces giving additional momentum to the field. Finally, we describe how the frontier is expanding so that a broad audience can appreciate the profound influence these developments may have on science.

  8. Simulators often provide the best description of real-world phenomena. However, the probability density that they implicitly define is often intractable, leading to challenging inverse problems for inference. Recently, a number of techniques have been introduced in which a surrogate for the intractable density is learned, including normalizing flows and density ratio estimators. We show that additional information that characterizes the latent process can often be extracted from simulators and used to augment the training data for these surrogate models. We introduce several loss functions that leverage these augmented data and demonstrate that these techniques can improve sample efficiency and qualitymore »of inference.

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