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  1. ABSTRACT

    Using adaptive optics with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope, the Middle Ages Galaxy Properties with Integral Field Spectroscopy survey allows us to study the spatially resolved Universe at a crucial time of ∼4 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.3) when simulations predict the greatest diversity in evolutionary pathways for galaxies. We investigate the radial trends in the star formation (SF) activity and luminosity-weighted stellar ages as a function of offset from the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) for a total of 294 galaxies. Using both Hα emission and the 4000 Å break (i.e. D4000) as star formation rate (SFR) tracers, we find overall flat radial profiles for galaxies lying on and above the SFMS, suggestive of physical processes that enhance/regulate SF throughout the entire galaxy disc. However, for galaxies lying below the SFMS, we find positive gradients in SF suggestive of inside–out quenching. Placing our results in context with results from other redshift regimes suggests an evolution in radial trends at z ∼ 0.3 for SF galaxies above the SFMS, from uniformly enhanced SF at z ∼ 1 and ∼ 0.3 to centrally enhanced SF at z ∼ 0 (when averaged over a wide range of mass). We also capture higher local SFRs for galaxies below the SFMS compared to that of z ∼ 0, which can be explained by a larger population of quenched satellites in the local Universe and/or different treatments of limitations set by the D4000–sSFR relation.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    Slow rotator galaxies are distinct amongst galaxy populations, with simulations suggesting that a mix of minor and major mergers are responsible for their formation. A promising path to resolve outstanding questions on the type of merger responsible, is by investigating deep imaging of massive galaxies for signs of potential merger remnants. We utilize deep imaging from the Subaru-Hyper Suprime Cam Wide data to search for tidal features in massive [log10(M*/M⊙) > 10] early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SAMI Galaxy Survey. We perform a visual check for tidal features on images where the galaxy has been subtracted using a Multi-Gauss Expansion (MGE) model. We find that 31$^{+2}_{-2}$ per cent of our sample show tidal features. When comparing galaxies with and without features, we find that the distributions in stellar mass, light-weighted mean stellar population age, and H${\alpha}$ equivalent width are significantly different, whereas spin ($\lambda _{R_{\rm {e}}}$), ellipticity, and bulge-to-total ratio have similar distributions. When splitting our sample in age, we find that galaxies below the median age (10.8 Gyr) show a correlation between the presence of shells and lower $\lambda _{R_{\rm {e}}}$, as expected from simulations. We also find these younger galaxies which are classified as having ‘strong’ shells have lower $\lambda _{R_{\rm {e}}}$. However, simulations suggest that merger features become undetectable within ∼2–4 Gyr post-merger. This implies that the relationship between tidal features and merger history disappears for galaxies with older stellar ages, i.e. those that are more likely to have merged long ago.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    Most dynamical models of galaxies to date assume axisymmetry, which is not representative of a significant fraction of massive galaxies. We have built triaxial orbit-superposition Schwarzschild models of galaxies observed by the SAMI Galaxy Survey, in order to reconstruct their inner orbital structure and mass distribution. The sample consists of 153 passive galaxies with total stellar masses in the range 109.5 to $10^{12} \, {\rm M}_{\odot }$. We present an analysis of the internal structures and intrinsic properties of these galaxies as a function of their environment. We measure their environment using three proxies: central or satellite designation, halo mass and local 5th nearest neighbour galaxy density. We find that although these intrinsic properties correlate most strongly with stellar mass, environment does play a secondary role: at fixed stellar mass, galaxies in the densest regions are more radially anisotropic. In addition, central galaxies, and galaxies in high local densities show lower values of edge-on spin parameter proxy λRe, EO. We also find suggestions of a possible trend of the fractions of orbits with environment for lower mass galaxies (between 109.5 and $10^{11} \, {\rm M}_{\odot }$) such that, at fixed stellar mass, galaxies in higher local densities and halo mass have higher fractions of hot orbits and lower fractions of warm orbits. Our results demonstrate that after stellar mass, environment does play a role in shaping present-day passive galaxies.

     
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  4. ABSTRACT

    We study the alignments of galaxy spin axes with respect to cosmic web filaments as a function of various properties of the galaxies and their constituent bulges and discs. We exploit the SAMI Galaxy Survey to identify 3D spin axes from spatially resolved stellar kinematics and to decompose the galaxy into the kinematic bulge and disc components. The GAMA survey is used to reconstruct the cosmic filaments. The mass of the bulge, defined as the product of stellar mass and bulge-to-total flux ratio Mbulge = M⋆ × (B/T), is the primary parameter of correlation with spin–filament alignments: galaxies with lower bulge masses tend to have their spins parallel to the closest filament, while galaxies with higher bulge masses are more perpendicularly aligned. M⋆ and B/T separately show correlations, but they do not fully unravel spin–filament alignments. Other galaxy properties, such as visual morphology, stellar age, star formation activity, kinematic parameters, and local environment, are secondary tracers. Focussing on S0 galaxies, we find preferentially perpendicular alignments, with the signal dominated by high-mass S0 galaxies. Studying bulge and disc spin–filament alignments separately reveals additional information about the formation pathways of the corresponding galaxies: bulges tend to have more perpendicular alignments, while discs show different tendencies according to their kinematic features and the mass of the associated bulge. The observed correlation between the flipping of spin–filament alignments and the growth of the bulge can be explained by mergers, which drive both alignment flips and bulge formation.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    Galaxy mergers are crucial to understanding galaxy evolution, therefore we must determine their observational signatures to select them from large IFU galaxy samples such as MUSE and SAMI. We employ 24 high-resolution idealized hydrodynamical galaxy merger simulations based on the ‘Feedback In Realistic Environment’ (FIRE-2) model to determine the observability of mergers to various configurations and stages using synthetic images and velocity maps. Our mergers cover a range of orbital configurations at fixed 1:2.5 stellar mass ratio for two gas rich spirals at low redshift. Morphological and kinematic asymmetries are computed for synthetic images and velocity maps spanning each interaction. We divide the interaction sequence into three: (1) the pair phase; (2) the merging phase; and (3) the post-coalescence phase. We correctly identify mergers between first pericentre passage and 500 Myr after coalescence using kinematic asymmetry with 66 per cent completeness, depending upon merger phase and the field of view of the observation. We detect fewer mergers in the pair phase (40 per cent) and many more in the merging and post-coalescence phases (97 per cent). We find that merger detectability decreases with field of view, except in retrograde mergers, where centrally concentrated asymmetric kinematic features enhances their detectability. Using a cut-off derived from a combination of photometric and kinematic asymmetry, we increase these detections to 89 per cent overall, 79 per cent in pairs, and close to 100 per cent in the merging and post-coalescent phases. By using this combined asymmetry cut-off we mitigate some of the effects caused by smaller fields of view subtended by massively multiplexed integral field spectroscopy programmes.

     
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  6. ABSTRACT

    We present SAMI-H i, a survey of the atomic hydrogen content of 296 galaxies with integral field spectroscopy available from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The sample spans nearly 4 dex in stellar mass ($M_\star = 10^{7.4}-10^{11.1}~ \rm M_\odot$), redshift z < 0.06, and includes new Arecibo observations of 153 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H i spectra. We use these data to compare the rotational velocities obtained from optical and radio observations and to show how systematic differences affect the slope and scatter of the stellar-mass and baryonic Tully–Fisher relations. Specifically, we show that $\rm H\alpha$ rotational velocities measured in the inner parts of galaxies (1.3 effective radii in this work) systematically underestimate H i global measurements, with H i/$\rm H\alpha$ velocity ratios that increase at low stellar masses, where rotation curves are typically still rising and $\rm H\alpha$ measurements do not reach their plateau. As a result, the $\rm H\alpha$ stellar mass Tully–Fisher relation is steeper (when M⋆ is the independent variable) and has larger scatter than its H i counterpart. Interestingly, we confirm the presence of a small fraction of low-mass outliers of the $\rm H\alpha$ relation that are not present when H i velocity widths are used and are not explained by ‘aperture effects’. These appear to be highly disturbed systems for which $\rm H\alpha$ widths do not provide a reliable estimate of the rotational velocity. Our analysis reaffirms the importance of taking into account differences in velocity definitions as well as tracers used when interpreting offsets from the Tully–Fisher relation, at both low and high redshifts and when comparing with simulations.

     
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  7. ABSTRACT

    Using data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, we investigate the correlation between the projected stellar kinematic spin vector of 1397 SAMI galaxies and the line-of-sight motion of their neighbouring galaxies. We calculate the luminosity-weighted mean velocity difference between SAMI galaxies and their neighbours in the direction perpendicular to the SAMI galaxies’ angular momentum axes. The luminosity-weighted mean velocity offset between SAMI galaxies and neighbours, which indicates the signal of coherence between the rotation of the SAMI galaxies and the motion of neighbours, is 9.0 ± 5.4 km s−1 (1.7σ) for neighbours within 1 Mpc. In a large-scale analysis, we find that the average velocity offsets increase for neighbours out to 2 Mpc. However, the velocities are consistent with zero or negative for neighbours outside 3 Mpc. The negative signals for neighbours at a distance around 10 Mpc are also significant at the ∼2σ level, which indicate that the positive signals within 2 Mpc might come from the variance of large-scale structure. We also calculate average velocities of different subsamples, including galaxies in different regions of the sky, galaxies with different stellar masses, galaxy type, λRe, and inclination. Although subsamples of low-mass, high-mass, early-type, and low-spin galaxies show the 2–3σ signal of coherence for the neighbours within 2 Mpc, the results for different inclination subsamples and large-scale results suggest that the ∼2σ signals might result from coincidental scatter or variance of large-scale structure. Overall, the modest evidence of coherence signals for neighbouring galaxies within 2 Mpc needs to be confirmed by larger samples of observations and simulation studies.

     
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  8. ABSTRACT

    We study environmental quenching using the spatial distribution of current star formation and stellar population ages with the full SAMI Galaxy Survey. By using a star formation concentration index [C-index, defined as log10(r50, H α/r50, cont)], we separate our sample into regular galaxies (C-index ≥−0.2) and galaxies with centrally concentrated star formation (SF-concentrated; C-index <−0.2). Concentrated star formation is a potential indicator of galaxies currently undergoing ‘outside-in’ quenching. Our environments cover ungrouped galaxies, low-mass groups (M200 ≤ 1012.5M⊙), high-mass groups (M200 in the range 1012.5–14 M⊙) and clusters (M200 > 1014M⊙). We find the fraction of SF-concentrated galaxies increases as halo mass increases by 9 ± 2 per cent, 8 ± 3 per cent, 19 ± 4 per cent, and 29 ± 4 per cent for ungrouped galaxies, low-mass groups, high-mass groups, and clusters, respectively. We interpret these results as evidence for ‘outside-in’ quenching in groups and clusters. To investigate the quenching time-scale in SF-concentrated galaxies, we calculate light-weighted age (AgeL) and mass-weighted age (AgeM) using full spectral fitting, as well as the Dn4000 and HδA indices. We assume that the average galaxy age radial profile before entering a group or cluster is similar to ungrouped regular galaxies. At large radius (1–2 Re), SF-concentrated galaxies in high-mass groups have older ages than ungrouped regular galaxies with an age difference of 1.83 ± 0.38 Gyr for AgeL and 1.34 ± 0.56 Gyr for AgeM. This suggests that while ‘outside-in’ quenching can be effective in groups, the process will not quickly quench the entire galaxy. In contrast, the ages at 1–2 Re of cluster SF-concentrated galaxies and ungrouped regular galaxies are consistent (difference of 0.19 ± 0.21 Gyr for AgeL, 0.40 ± 0.61 Gyr for AgeM), suggesting the quenching process must be rapid.

     
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  9. ABSTRACT The kinematic morphology–density relation of galaxies is normally attributed to a changing distribution of galaxy stellar masses with the local environment. However, earlier studies were largely focused on slow rotators; the dynamical properties of the overall population in relation to environment have received less attention. We use the SAMI Galaxy Survey to investigate the dynamical properties of ∼1800 early and late-type galaxies with log (M⋆/M⊙) > 9.5 as a function of mean environmental overdensity (Σ5) and their rank within a group or cluster. By classifying galaxies into fast and slow rotators, at fixed stellar mass above log (M⋆/M⊙) > 10.5, we detect a higher fraction (∼3.4σ) of slow rotators for group and cluster centrals and satellites as compared to isolated-central galaxies. We find similar results when using Σ5 as a tracer for environment. Focusing on the fast-rotator population, we also detect a significant correlation between galaxy kinematics and their stellar mass as well as the environment they are in. Specifically, by using inclination-corrected or intrinsic $\lambda _{R_{\rm {e}}}$ values, we find that, at fixed mass, satellite galaxies on average have the lowest $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$, isolated-central galaxies have the highest $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$, and group and cluster centrals lie in between. Similarly, galaxies in high-density environments have lower mean $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$ values as compared to galaxies at low environmental density. However, at fixed Σ5, the mean $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$ differences for low and high-mass galaxies are of similar magnitude as when varying Σ5 ($\Delta \lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}} \sim 0.05$, with σrandom = 0.025, and σsyst < 0.03). Our results demonstrate that after stellar mass, environment plays a significant role in the creation of slow rotators, while for fast rotators we also detect an independent, albeit smaller, impact of mass and environment on their kinematic properties. 
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  10. ABSTRACT

    We investigate the mean locally measured velocity dispersions of ionized gas (σgas) and stars (σ*) for 1090 galaxies with stellar masses $\log \, (M_{\!\ast }/M_{\odot }) \ge 9.5$ from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. For star-forming galaxies, σ* tends to be larger than σgas, suggesting that stars are in general dynamically hotter than the ionized gas (asymmetric drift). The difference between σgas and σ* (Δσ) correlates with various galaxy properties. We establish that the strongest correlation of Δσ is with beam smearing, which inflates σgas more than σ*, introducing a dependence of Δσ on both the effective radius relative to the point spread function and velocity gradients. The second strongest correlation is with the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) (or evolved stars) to the ionized gas emission, implying that the gas velocity dispersion is strongly affected by the power source. In contrast, using the velocity dispersion measured from integrated spectra (σap) results in less correlation between the aperture-based Δσ (Δσap) and the power source. This suggests that the AGN (or old stars) dynamically heat the gas without causing significant deviations from dynamical equilibrium. Although the variation of Δσap is much smaller than that of Δσ, a correlation between Δσap and gas velocity gradient is still detected, implying that there is a small bias in dynamical masses derived from stellar and ionized gas velocity dispersions.

     
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