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  1. The water discharge and sediment load have been increasingly altered by climate change and human activities in recent decades. For the Pearl River, however, long-term variations in the sediment regime, especially in the last decade, remain poorly known. Here we updated knowledge of the temporal trends in the sediment regime of the Pearl River at annual, seasonal and monthly time scales from the 1950s to 2020. Results show that the annual sediment load and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) exhibited drastically decreased, regardless of water discharge. Compared with previous studies, we also found that sediment load and SSC reached a conspicuous peak in the 1980s, and showed a significant decline starting in the 2000s and 1990s, respectively. In the last decade, however, water discharge and sediment load showed slightly increasing trends. At the seasonal scale, the wet-season water discharge displays a decreasing trend, while the dry-season water discharge is increasing. At the monthly scale, the flood seasons in the North and East Rivers typically occur one month earlier than that in the West River due to the different precipitation regimes. Precipitation was responsible for the long-term change of discharge, while human activities (e.g. dam construction and land use change) exerted differentmore »effects on the variations in sediment load among different periods. Changes in the sediment regime have exerted substantial influences on downstream channel morphology and saltwater intrusion in the Greater Bay Area. Our study proposes a watershed-based solution, and provides scientific guidelines for the sustainable development of the Greater Bay Area.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 25, 2023
  2. Abstract Shorelines and their ecosystems are endangered by sea-level rise. Nature-based coastal protection is becoming a global strategy to enhance coastal resilience through the cost-effective creation, restoration and sustainable use of coastal wetlands. However, the resilience to sea-level rise of coastal wetlands created under Nature-based Solution has been assessed largely on a regional scale. Here we assess, using a meta-analysis, the difference in accretion, elevation, and sediment deposition rates between natural and restored coastal wetlands across the world. Our results show that restored coastal wetlands can trap more sediment and that the effectiveness of these restoration projects is primarily driven by sediment availability, not by wetland elevation, tidal range, local rates of sea-level rise, and significant wave height. Our results suggest that Nature-based Solutions can mitigate coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise, but are effective only in coastal locations where abundant sediment supply is available.
  3. Abstract All-electrical driven magnetization switching attracts much attention in next-generation spintronic memory and logic devices, particularly in magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) based on the spin–orbit torque (SOT), i.e. SOT-MRAM, due to its advantages of low power consumption, fast write/read speed, and improved endurance, etc. For conventional SOT-driven switching of the magnet with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, an external assisted magnetic field is necessary to break the inversion symmetry of the magnet, which not only induces the additional power consumption but also makes the circuit more complicated. Over the last decade, significant effort has been devoted to field-free magnetization manipulation by using SOT. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts of SOT. After that, we mainly focus on several approaches to realize the field-free deterministic SOT switching of the perpendicular magnet. The mechanisms mainly include mirror symmetry breaking, chiral symmetry breaking, exchange bias, and interlayer exchange coupling. Furthermore, we show the recent progress in the study of SOT with unconventional origin and symmetry. The final section is devoted to the industrial-level approach for potential applications of field-free SOT switching in SOT-MRAM technology.
  4. Abstract

    Species range expansion induced by climate change and human activities threaten native populations and communities across the biosphere. Insect herbivores, important consumers of plants, are known to expand or contract their range under global change, with potential consequences to the newly reached environment. The selection of oviposition sites by herbivorous insects could notably impact offspring performance. However, the role of such effects in impacting the receiving ecosystem has been rarely explored. Here, we provide the first evidence showing that a terrestrial range‐expanding phytophagous wood‐borer moth (Zeuzera leuconotumButler) heavily attacked the saplings of a foundation plant species tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis) in salt marshes. Long‐term field surveys and laboratory behaviour experiments revealed that the oviposition preference of adult females was beneficial to their larval performance. The preference to oviposit on young branches of the new host plants, which were often softer and contained enough nutrients for larval development, indicates that females could still make the right choice on novel host‐plants. This finding supports the ‘mother knows best’ hypothesis that female insects will evolve to oviposit on hosts on which their offspring fare best. Consequently, the survival of host‐plant saplings decreased dramatically under this top‐down control, revealing that herbivory of this range‐expandingmore »insect has a profound negative impact on the recruitment and succession of coastal foundation species, thereby potentially leading to saltmarsh degradation. These findings highlight the importance of the maternal oviposition effects in range‐expanding insects and how these populations can establish using novel host‐plants and threaten coastal wetlands.

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  5. Abstract

    Macrophyte community diversity and composition respond to ecosystem conservation and local environmental factors. In this study, we developed a multidimensional diversity framework for macrophyte communities, including the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity. We used the framework to explore the relationships among water level regimes and these diversity parameters in a case study of China's Baiyangdian Lake. Analysis of indicators of hydrologic alteration divided the water level from 1959 to 2019 into four regimes (dry, <6.42 m; low, 6.42–7.23 m; medium, 7.23–8.19 m; high, >8.19 m). Alpha and beta diversity were significantly higher in the medium regime than in the low and high regimes. Redundancy analysis indicated that the maximum water depth significantly affected taxonomic alpha diversity, and total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration significantly affected functional alpha diversity, respectively. Mantel tests showed thatTN, Secchi depth (SD), and water depth in the high water level regime significantly increased the total beta diversity and turnover components.TNwas the main factor that increased total taxonomic beta diversity. Water level regime mainly influenced interspecific relationships by changing the TN and COD concentration. The water level should be maintained between the medium and high water level regimes to promote restoration of the macrophyte communitymore »and improve ecosystem stability. The biodiversity evaluation framework would provide a deeper insight into the hydrological process management for restoration of aquatic macrophyte communities in shallow lakes.

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