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  1. null (Ed.)
    The prediction of microstructure evolution and densification behavior during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process largely depends on accurate temperature regulation. A loop feedback control algorithm called proportional integral derivative (PID) control is a practical simulation tool, but its coefficients are often determined by an inefficient “trial and error” method. This paper is devoted to proposing a numerical method based on the principles of variable coefficients to construct an optimal linear PID controller in SPS electro-thermal simulations. Different types of temperature profiles were applied to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method. Simulation results showed that, for temperature profiles conventionally used in SPS cycles, the PID output keeps pace with the desired profile. Characterized by an imperfect time delay and overshoot/undershoot, the constructed PID controller needs further advancement to provide a more satisfactory temperature regulation for non-continuous temperature profiles. The first step towards a numerical rule for the optimal PID controller design was undertaken in this work. It is expected to provide a valuable reference for the advanced electro-thermal modeling of SPS. 
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  2. null (Ed.)