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  1. What new questions could ecophysiologists answer if physio-logging research was fully reproducible? We argue that technical debt (computational hurdles resulting from prioritizing short-term goals over long-term sustainability) stemming from insufficient cyberinfrastructure (field-wide tools, standards, and norms for analyzing and sharing data) trapped physio-logging in a scientific silo. This debt stifles comparative biological analyses and impedes interdisciplinary research. Although physio-loggers (e.g., heart rate monitors and accelerometers) opened new avenues of research, the explosion of complex datasets exceeded ecophysiology’s informatics capacity. Like many other scientific fields facing a deluge of complex data, ecophysiologists now struggle to share their data and tools. Adapting to this new era requires a change in mindset, from “data as a noun” (e.g., traits, counts) to “data as a sentence”, where measurements (nouns) are associate with transformations (verbs), parameters (adverbs), and metadata (adjectives). Computational reproducibility provides a framework for capturing the entire sentence. Though usually framed in terms of scientific integrity, reproducibility offers immediate benefits by promoting collaboration between individuals, groups, and entire fields. Rather than a tax on our productivity that benefits some nebulous greater good, reproducibility can accelerate the pace of discovery by removing obstacles and inviting a greater diversity of perspectives to advance science and society. In this article, we 1) describe the computational challenges facing physio-logging scientists and connect them to the concepts of technical debt and cyberinfrastructure , 2) demonstrate how other scientific fields overcame similar challenges by embracing computational reproducibility, and 3) present a framework to promote computational reproducibility in physio-logging, and bio-logging more generally. 
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  2. Synopsis

    Although gigantic body size and obligate filter feeding mechanisms have evolved in multiple vertebrate lineages (mammals and fishes), intermittent ram (lunge) filter feeding is unique to a specific family of baleen whales: rorquals. Lunge feeding is a high cost, high benefit feeding mechanism that requires the integration of unsteady locomotion (i.e., accelerations and maneuvers); the impact of scale on the biomechanics and energetics of this foraging mode continues to be the subject of intense study. The goal of our investigation was to use a combination of multi-sensor tags paired with UAS footage to determine the impact of morphometrics such as body size on kinematic lunging parameters such as fluking timing, maximum lunging speed, and deceleration during the engulfment period for a range of species from minke to blue whales. Our results show that, in the case of krill-feeding lunges and regardless of size, animals exhibit a skewed gradient between powered and fully unpowered engulfment, with fluking generally ending at the point of both the maximum lunging speed and mouth opening. In all cases, the small amounts of propulsive thrust generated by the tail were unable to overcome the high drag forces experienced during engulfment. Assuming this thrust to be minimal, we predicted the minimum speed of lunging across scale. To minimize the energetic cost of lunge feeding, hydrodynamic theory predicts slower lunge feeding speeds regardless of body size, with a lower boundary set by the ability of the prey to avoid capture. We used empirical data to test this theory and instead found that maximum foraging speeds remain constant and high (∼4 m s–1) across body size, even as higher speeds result in lower foraging efficiency. Regardless, we found an increasing relationship between body size and this foraging efficiency, estimated as the ratio of energetic gain from prey to energetic cost. This trend held across timescales ranging from a single lunge to a single day and suggests that larger whales are capturing more prey—and more energy—at a lower cost.

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  3. Abstract Bio-logging devices equipped with inertial measurement units—particularly accelerometers, magnetometers, and pressure sensors—have revolutionized our ability to study animals as necessary electronics have gotten smaller and more affordable over the last two decades. These animal-attached tags allow for fine scale determination of behavior in the absence of direct observation, particularly useful in the marine realm, where direct observation is often impossible, and recent devices can integrate more power hungry and sensitive instruments, such as hydrophones, cameras, and physiological sensors. To convert the raw voltages recorded by bio-logging sensors into biologically meaningful metrics of orientation (e.g., pitch, roll and heading), motion (e.g., speed, specific acceleration) and position (e.g., depth and spatial coordinates), we developed a series of MATLAB tools and online instructional tutorials. Our tools are adaptable for a variety of devices, though we focus specifically on the integration of video, audio, 3-axis accelerometers, 3-axis magnetometers, 3-axis gyroscopes, pressure, temperature, light and GPS data that are the standard outputs from Customized Animal Tracking Solutions (CATS) video tags. Our tools were developed and tested on cetacean data but are designed to be modular and adaptable for a variety of marine and terrestrial species. In this text, we describe how to use these tools, the theories and ideas behind their development, and ideas and additional tools for applying the outputs of the process to biological research. We additionally explore and address common errors that can occur during processing and discuss future applications. All code is provided open source and is designed to be useful to both novice and experienced programmers. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Some marine birds and mammals can perform dives of extraordinary duration and depth. Such dive performance is dependent on many factors, including total body oxygen (O2) stores. For diving penguins, the respiratory system (air sacs and lungs) constitutes 30-50% of the total body O2 store. To better understand the role and mechanism of parabronchial ventilation and O2 utilization in penguins both on the surface and during the dive, we examined air sac partial pressures of O2 (PO2) in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) equipped with backpack PO2 recorders. Cervical air sac PO2s at rest were lower than in other birds, while the cervical air sac to posterior thoracic air sac PO2 difference was larger. Pre-dive cervical air sac PO2s were often greater than those at rest, but had a wide range and were not significantly different from those at rest. The maximum respiratory O2 store and total body O2 stores calculated with representative anterior and posterior air sac PO2 data did not differ from prior estimates. The mean calculated anterior air sac O2 depletion rate for dives up to 11 min was approximately one-tenth that of the posterior air sacs. Low cervical air sac PO2s at rest may be secondary to a low ratio of parabronchial ventilation to parabronchial blood O2 extraction. During dives, overlap of simultaneously recorded cervical and posterior thoracic air sac PO2 profiles supported the concept of maintenance of parabronchial ventilation during a dive by air movement through the lungs. 
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