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  1. Abstract We identify targets in the Kepler field that may be characterized by transit timing variations and are detectable by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Despite the reduced signal-to-noise ratio of TESS transits compared to Kepler, we recover 48 transits from 13 systems in Sectors 14, 15, 26, 40 and 41. We find strong evidence of a nontransiting perturber orbiting Kepler-396 (KOI-2672) and explore two possible cases of a third planet in that system that could explain the measured transit times. We update the ephemerides and mass constraints where possible at KOI-70 (Kepler-20), KOI-82 (Kepler-102), KOI-94 (Kepler-89), KOI-137 (Kepler-18), KOI-244 (Kepler-25), KOI-245 (Kepler-37), KOI-282 (Kepler-130), KOI-377 (Kepler-9), KOI-620 (Kepler-51), KOI-806 (Kepler-30), KOI-1353 (Kepler-289), and KOI-1783 (Kepler-1662).
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2023
  2. Abstract We use a high-precision radial velocity survey of FGKM stars to study the conditional occurrence of two classes of planets: close-in small planets (0.023–1 au, 2–30 M ⊕ ) and distant giant planets (0.23–10 au, 30–6000 M ⊕ ). We find that 41 − 13 + 15 % of systems with a close-in, small planet also host an outer giant, compared to 17.6 − 1.9 + 2.4 % for stars irrespective of small planet presence. This implies that small planet hosts may be enhanced in outer giant occurrences compared to all stars with 1.7 σ significance. Conversely, we estimate that 42 − 13 + 17 % of cold giant hosts also host an inner small planet, compared to 27.6 − 4.8 + 5.8 % of stars irrespective of cold giant presence. We also find that more massive and close-in giant planets are not associated with small inner planets. Specifically, our sample indicates that small planets are less likely to have outer giant companions more massive than approximately 120 M ⊕ and within 0.3–3 au, than to have less massive or more distant giant companions, with ∼2.2 σ confidence. This implies that massive gas giants within 0.3–3 au may suppressmore »inner small planet formation. Additionally, we compare the host-star metallicity distributions for systems with only small planets and those with both small planets and cold giants. In agreement with previous studies, we find that stars in our survey that only host small planets have a metallicity distribution that is consistent with the broader solar-metallicity-median sample, while stars that host both small planets and gas giants are distinctly metal rich with ∼2.3 σ confidence.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 17, 2023
  3. Abstract The observed correlation between outer giant planets and inner super-Earths is emerging as an important constraint on planet formation theories. In this study, we focus on Kepler-167, which is currently the only system known to contain both inner transiting super-Earths and a confirmed outer transiting gas giant companion beyond 1 au. Using long-term radial velocity monitoring, we measure the mass of the gas giant Kepler-167e ( P = 1071 days) to be 1.01 − 0.15 + 0.16 M J , thus confirming it as a Jupiter analog. We refit the Kepler photometry to obtain updated radii for all four planets. Using a planetary structure model, we estimate that Kepler-167e contains 66 ± 19 M ⊕ of solids and is significantly enriched in metals relative to its solar-metallicity host star. We use these new constraints to explore the broader question of how systems like Kepler-167 form in the pebble accretion framework for giant planet core formation. We utilize simple disk evolution models to demonstrate that more massive and metal-rich disks, which are the most favorable sites for giant planet formation, can also deliver enough solids to the inner disk to form systems of super-Earths. We use these same models tomore »constrain the nature of Kepler-167's protoplanetary disk and find that it likely contained ≳300 M ⊕ of dust and was ≳40 au in size. These values overlap with the upper end of the observed dust mass and size distributions of Class 0 and I disks and are also consistent with the observed occurrence rate of Jupiter analogs around Sun-like stars.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    More than 5000 exoplanets have been confirmed and among them almost 4000 were discovered by the transit method. However, few transiting exoplanets have an orbital period greater than 100 days. Here we report a transit detection of Kepler-167 e, a “Jupiter analog” exoplanet orbiting a K4 star with a period of 1071 days, using the Unistellar ground-based telescope network. From 2021 November 18 to 20, citizen astronomers located in nine different countries gathered 43 observations, covering the 16 hr long transit. Using a nested sampling approach to combine and fit the observations, we detected the midtransit time to be UTC 2021 November 19 17:20:51 with a 1σuncertainty of 9.8 minutes, making it the longest-period planet to ever have its transit detected from the ground. This is the fourth transit detection of Kepler-167 e, but the first made from the ground. This timing measurement refines the orbit and keeps the ephemeris up to date without requiring space telescopes. Observations like this demonstrate the capabilities of coordinated networks of small telescopes to identify and characterize planets with long orbital periods.

  5. Abstract We present spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect for WASP-148b, the only known hot Jupiter with a nearby warm-Jupiter companion, from the WIYN/NEID and Keck/HIRES instruments. This is one of the first scientific results reported from the newly commissioned NEID spectrograph, as well as the second obliquity constraint for a hot Jupiter system with a close-in companion, after WASP-47. WASP-148b is consistent with being in alignment with the sky-projected spin axis of the host star, with λ = − 8 .° 2 − 9 .° 7 + 8 .° 7 . The low obliquity observed in the WASP-148 system is consistent with the orderly-alignment configuration of most compact multi-planet systems around cool stars with obliquity constraints, including our solar system, and may point to an early history for these well-organized systems in which migration and accretion occurred in isolation, with relatively little disturbance. By contrast, previous results have indicated that high-mass and hot stars appear to more commonly host a wide range of misaligned planets: not only single hot Jupiters, but also compact systems with multiple super-Earths. We suggest that, to account for the high rate of spin–orbit misalignments in both compact multi-planet and isolated-hot-Jupiter systems orbiting high-mass andmore »hot stars, spin–orbit misalignments may be caused by distant giant planet perturbers, which are most common around these stellar types.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023