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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 20, 2023
  2. The respective benefits and drawbacks of manual food journaling and automated dietary monitoring (ADM) suggest the value of semi-automated journaling systems combining the approaches. However, the current understanding of how people anticipate strategies for implementing semi-automated food journaling systems is limited. We therefore conduct a speculative survey study with 600 responses, examining how people anticipate approaches to automatic capture and prompting for details. Participants feel the location and detection capability of ADM sensors influences anticipated physical, social, and privacy burdens. People more positively anticipate prompts which contain information relevant to their journaling goals, help them recall what they ate, and are quick to respond to. Our work suggests a tradeoff between ADM systems' detection performance and anticipated acceptability, with sensors on facial areas having higher performance but lower acceptability than sensors in other areas and more usable prompting methods like those containing specific foods being more challenging to produce than manual reminders. We suggest opportunities to improve higher-acceptability, lower-accuracy ADM sensors, select approaches based on individual and practitioner journaling needs, and better describe capabilities to potential users.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 6, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We often need to have beliefs about things on which we are not experts. Luckily, we often have access to expert judgements on such topics. But how should we form our beliefs on the basis of expert opinion when experts conflict in their judgments? This is the core of the novice/2-expert problem in social epistemology. A closely related question is important in the context of policy making: how should a policy maker use expert judgments when making policy in domains in which she is not herself an expert? This question is more complex, given the messy and strategic nature of politics. In this paper we argue that the prediction with expert advice (PWEA) framework from machine learning provides helpful tools for addressing these problems. We outline conditions under which we should expert PWEA to be helpful and those under which we should not expect these methods to perform well.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. Cryo-cooling has been nearly universally adopted to mitigate X-ray damage and facilitate crystal handling in protein X-ray crystallography. However, cryo X-ray crystallographic data provide an incomplete window into the ensemble of conformations that is at the heart of protein function and energetics. Room-temperature (RT) X-ray crystallography provides accurate ensemble information, and recent developments allow conformational heterogeneity (the experimental manifestation of ensembles) to be extracted from single-crystal data. Nevertheless, high sensitivity to X-ray damage at RT raises concerns about data reliability. To systematically address this critical issue, increasingly X-ray-damaged high-resolution data sets (1.02–1.52 Å resolution) were obtained from single proteinase K, thaumatin and lysozyme crystals at RT (277 K). In each case a modest increase in conformational heterogeneity with X-ray damage was observed. Merging data with different extents of damage (as is typically carried out) had negligible effects on conformational heterogeneity until the overall diffraction intensity decayed to ∼70% of its initial value. These effects were compared with X-ray damage effects in cryo-cooled crystals by carrying out an analogous analysis of increasingly damaged proteinase K cryo data sets (0.9–1.16 Å resolution). X-ray damage-associated heterogeneity changes were found that were not observed at RT. This property renders it difficult to distinguish real from artefactual conformationsmore »and to determine the conformational response to changes in temperature. The ability to acquire reliable heterogeneity information from single crystals at RT, together with recent advances in RT data collection at accessible synchrotron beamlines, provides a strong motivation for the widespread adoption of RT X-ray crystallography to obtain conformational ensemble information.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  6. The ubiquitin–proteasome system is responsible for the bulk of protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Proteins are generally targeted to the 26S proteasome through the attachment of polyubiquitin chains. Several proteins also contain ubiquitin-independent degrons (UbIDs) that allow for proteasomal targeting without the need for ubiquitination. Our laboratory previously showed that UbID substrates are less processively degraded than ubiquitinated substrates, but the mechanism underlying this difference remains unclear. We therefore designed two model substrates containing both a ubiquitination site and a UbID for a more direct comparison. We found UbID degradation to be overall less robust, with complete degradation only occurring with loosely folded substrates. UbID degradation was unaffected by the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ATPγS, indicating that UbID degradation proceeds in an ATP-independent manner. Stabilizing substrates halted UbID degradation, indicating that the proteasome can only capture UbID substrates if they are already at least transiently unfolded, as confirmed using native-state proteolysis. The 26S proteasome therefore switches between ATP-independent weak degradation and ATP-dependent robust unfolding and degradation depending on whether or not the substrate is ubiquitinated.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Abstract

    Climate extremes cause significant winter wheat yield loss and can cause much greater impacts than single extremes in isolation when multiple extremes occur simultaneously. Here we show that compound hot-dry-windy events (HDW) significantly increased in the U.S. Great Plains from 1982 to 2020. These HDW events were the most impactful drivers for wheat yield loss, accounting for a 4% yield reduction per 10 h of HDW during heading to maturity. Current HDW trends are associated with yield reduction rates of up to 0.09 t ha−1per decade and HDW variations are atmospheric-bridged with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We quantify the “yield shock”, which is spatially distributed, with the losses in severely HDW-affected areas, presumably the same areas affected by the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Our findings indicate that compound HDW, which traditional risk assessments overlooked, have significant implications for the U.S. winter wheat production and beyond.

  8. Abstract

    The ballistic performance of edge-clamped monolithic polyimide aerogel blocks (12 mm thickness) has been studied through a series of impact tests using a helium-filled gas gun connected to a vacuum chamber and a spherical steel projectile (approximately 3 mm diameter) with an impact velocity range of 150–1300 m s−1. The aerogels had an average bulk density of 0.17 g cm−3with high porosity of approximately 88%. The ballistic limit velocity of the aerogels was estimated to be in the range of 175–179 m s−1. Moreover, the aerogels showed a robust ballistic energy absorption performance (e.g., at the impact velocity of 1283 m s−1at least 18% of the impact energy was absorbed). At low impact velocities, the aerogels failed by ductile hole enlargement followed by a tensile failure. By contrast, at high impact velocities, the aerogels failed through an adiabatic shearing process. Given the substantially robust ballistic performance, the polyimide aerogels have a potential to combat multiple constraints such as cost, weight, and volume restrictions in aeronautical and aerospace applications with high blast resistance and ballistic performance requirements such as in stuffed Whipple shields for orbital debris containment application.

  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 25, 2023
  10. Abstract

    We present an open-source software package called “Hamiltonian Open Quantum System Toolkit (HOQST), a collection of tools for the investigation of open quantum system dynamics in Hamiltonian quantum computing, including both quantum annealing and the gate-model of quantum computing. It features the key master equations (MEs) used in the field, suitable for describing the reduced system dynamics of an arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonian with either weak or strong coupling to infinite-dimensional quantum baths. We present an overview of the theories behind the various MEs and provide examples to illustrate typical workflows in HOQST. We present an example that shows that HOQST can provide order of magnitude speedups compared to “Quantum Toolbox in Python (QuTiP), for problems with time-dependent Hamiltonians. The package is ready to be deployed on high performance computing (HPC) clusters and is aimed at providing reliable open-system analysis tools for noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices.