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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 11, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 11, 2023
  3. Stencil computations are widely used to simulate the change of state of physical systems across a multidimensional grid over multiple timesteps. The state-of-the-art techniques in this area fall into three groups: cache-aware tiled looping algorithms, cache-oblivious divide-and-conquer trapezoidal algorithms, and Krylov subspace methods. In this paper, we present two efficient parallel algorithms for performing linear stencil computations. Current direct solvers in this domain are computationally inefficient, and Krylov methods require manual labor and mathematical training. We solve these problems for linear stencils by using DFT preconditioning on a Krylov method to achieve a direct solver which is both fast and general. Indeed, while all currently available algorithms for solving general linear stencils perform Θ(NT) work, where N is the size of the spatial grid and T is the number of timesteps, our algorithms perform o(NT) work. To the best of our knowledge, we give the first algorithms that use fast Fourier transforms to compute final grid data by evolving the initial data for many timesteps at once. Our algorithms handle both periodic and aperiodic boundary conditions, and achieve polynomially better performance bounds (i.e., computational complexity and parallel runtime) than all other existing solutions. Initial experimental results show that implementations ofmore »our algorithms that evolve grids of roughly 10^7 cells for around 10^5 timesteps run orders of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art implementations for periodic stencil problems, and 1.3× to 8.5× faster for aperiodic stencil problems.« less
  4. The binary-forking model is a parallel computation model, formally defined by Blelloch et al., in which a thread can fork a concurrent child thread, recursively and asynchronously. The model incurs a cost of Theta(log n) to spawn or synchronize n tasks or threads. The binary-forking model realistically captures the performance of parallel algorithms implemented using modern multithreaded programming languages on multicore shared-memory machines. In contrast, the widely studied theoretical PRAM model does not consider the cost of spawning and synchronizing threads, and as a result, algorithms achieving optimal performance bounds in the PRAM model may not be optimal in the binary-forking model. Often, algorithms need to be redesigned to achieve optimal performance bounds in the binary-forking model and the non-constant synchronization cost makes the task challenging. In this paper, we show that in the binary-forking model we can achieve optimal or near-optimal span with negligible or no asymptotic blowup in work for comparison-based sorting, Strassen's matrix multiplication (MM), and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Our major results are as follows: (1) A randomized comparison-based sorting algorithm with optimal O(log n) span and O(nlog n) work, both w.h.p. in n. (2) An optimal O(log n) span algorithm for Strassen's matrix multiplicationmore »(MM) with only a loglog n - factor blow-up in work as well as a near-optimal O(log n loglog log n) span algorithm with no asymptotic blow-up in work. (3) A near-optimal O(log n logloglog n) span Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm with less than a log n-factor blow-up in work for all practical values of n (i.e., n le 10 ^10,000 ).« less
  5. In the parallel paging problem, there are $\pP$ processors that share a cache of size $k$. The goal is to partition the cache among the \procs over time in order to minimize their average completion time. For this long-standing open problem, we give tight upper and lower bounds of $\Theta(\log \p)$ on the competitive ratio with $O(1)$ resource augmentation. A key idea in both our algorithms and lower bounds is to relate the problem of parallel paging to the seemingly unrelated problem of green paging. In green paging, there is an energy-optimized processor that can temporarily turn off one or more of its cache banks (thereby reducing power consumption), so that the cache size varies between a maximum size $k$ and a minimum size $k/\p$. The goal is to minimize the total energy consumed by the computation, which is proportional to the integral of the cache size over time. We show that any efficient solution to green paging can be converted into an efficient solution to parallel paging, and that any lower bound for green paging can be converted into a lower bound for parallel paging, in both cases in a black-box fashion. We then show that, with $O(1)$ resourcemore »augmentation, the optimal competitive ratio for deterministic online green paging is $\Theta(\log \p)$, which, in turn, implies the same bounds for deterministic online parallel paging.« less
  6. The binary-forking model is a parallel computation model, formally defined by Blelloch et al., in which a thread can fork a concurrent child thread, recursively and asynchronously. The model incurs a cost of Theta(log n) to spawn or synchronize n tasks or threads. The binary-forking model realistically captures the performance of parallel algorithms implemented using modern multithreaded programming languages on multicore shared-memory machines. In contrast, the widely studied theoretical PRAM model does not consider the cost of spawning and synchronizing threads, and as a result, algorithms achieving optimal performance bounds in the PRAM model may not be optimal in the binary-forking model. Often, algorithms need to be redesigned to achieve optimal performance bounds in the binary-forking model and the non-constant synchronization cost makes the task challenging. In this paper, we show that in the binary-forking model we can achieve optimal or near-optimal span with negligible or no asymptotic blowup in work for comparison-based sorting, Strassen's matrix multiplication (MM), and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Our major results are as follows: (1) A randomized comparison-based sorting algorithm with optimal O(log n) span and O(nlog n) work, both w.h.p. in n. (2) An optimal O(log n) span algorithm for Strassen's matrix multiplicationmore »(MM) with only a loglog n - factor blow-up in work as well as a near-optimal O(log n loglog log n) span algorithm with no asymptotic blow-up in work. (3) A near-optimal O(log n logloglog n) span Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm with less than a log n-factor blow-up in work for all practical values of n (i.e., n le 10 ^10,000)« less
  7. Motivated by indoor localization by tripwire lasers, we study the problem of cutting a polygon into small-size pieces, using the chords of the polygon. Several versions are considered, depending on the definition of the "size" of a piece. In particular, we consider the area, the diameter, and the radius of the largest inscribed circle as a measure of the size of a piece. We also consider different objectives, either minimizing the maximum size of a piece for a given number of chords, or minimizing the number of chords that achieve a given size threshold for the pieces. We give hardness results for polygons with holes and approximation algorithms for multiple variants of the problem.