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  1. Gannot, Israel ; Roodenko, Katy (Ed.)
    There is a growing demand for hand-held and/or field-grade sensors for biochemical analysis of fluids. These systems have applications in monitoring of nitrogen-based compounds (such as nitrate and ammonia) in the wastewater treatment industry; bacterial detection in drinking water; analysis of biofluids, such as urine or blood; and in many other areas. Mid-infrared (midIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for identification and quantification of a wide range of common organic and inorganic compounds. Although IR radiation is strongly absorbed in water, this technology can be adapted for analysis of fluids by utilizing the principles of attenuated total reflection (ATR). In this contribution we highlight the application of IR spectroscopy in wastewater analysis as well as for metabolomic analysis in bioreactors. We discuss the requirements for IR signal stability that are necessary for biochemical analysis of fluids and provide examples of challenges encountered during transition from FTIR to a QCL-based platform. Overall, our stepwise efforts target eventual integration of a QCL light source, waveguide sensor, and IR detector onto a single photonic integrated circuit (PIC) for applications in the defense sector as well as for a broad consumer market. 
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