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  1. Understanding the role of ferroelectric polarization in modulating the electronic and structural properties of crystals is critical for advancing these materials for overcoming various technological and scientific challenges. However, due to difficulties in performing experimental methods with the required resolution, or in interpreting the results of methods therein, the nanoscale morphology and response of these surfaces to external electric fields has not been properly elaborated. In this work we investigate the effect of ferroelectric polarization and local distortions in a BaTiO 3 perovskite, using two widely used computational approaches which treat the many-body nature of X-ray excitations using different philosophies, namely the many-body, delta-self-consistent-field determinant (mb-ΔSCF) and the Bethe–Salpeter equation (BSE) approaches. We show that in agreement with our experiments, both approaches consistently predict higher excitations of the main peak in the O–K edge for the surface with upward polarization. However, the mb-ΔSCF approach mostly fails to capture the L 2,3 separations at the Ti–L edge, due to the absence of spin–orbit coupling in Kohn–Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) at the generalized gradient approximation level. On the other hand, and most promising, we show that application of the GW/BSE approach successfully reproduces the experimental XAS, both the relative peak intensitiesmore »as well as the L 2,3 separations at the Ti–L edges upon ferroelectric switching. Thus simulated XAS is shown to be a powerful method for capturing the nanoscale structure of complex materials, and we underscore the need for many-body perturbation approaches, with explicit consideration of core-hole and multiplet effects, for capturing the essential physics in these systems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 16, 2024
  2. Abstract

    While solar-like oscillations in red giants have been observed at massive scales by the Kepler mission, few features of these oscillation mode frequencies, other than their global properties, have been exploited for stellar characterization. The signatures of acoustic glitches in mode frequencies have been used for studying main-sequence stars, but the validity of applying such techniques to evolved red giants, particularly pertaining to the inclusion of nonradial modes, has been less well examined. Making use of new theoretical developments, we characterize glitches using theπmodes associated with red giant stellar models, and use our procedure to examine for the first time how the properties of the Heiiacoustic glitch—specifically its amplitude and associated acoustic depth—vary over the course of evolution up the red giant branch, and with respect to other fundamental stellar properties. We find that the acoustic depths of these glitches, in conjunction with other spectroscopic information, discriminate between red giants in the first-ascent and core-helium-burning phases. We critically reexamine previous attempts to constrain acoustic glitches from nonradial (in particular dipole) modes in red giants. Finally, we apply our fitting procedure to Kepler data, to evaluate its robustness to noise and other observational systematics.

  3. Spatially invariant feature detection is a property of many visual systems that rely on visual information provided by two eyes. However, how information across both eyes is integrated for invariant feature detection is not fully understood. Here we investigate spatial invariance of looming responses in descending neurons (DNs) of Drosophila melanogaster. We find multiple looming responsive DNs integrate looming information across both eyes, even though their dendrites are restricted to a single visual hemisphere. One DN, the giant fiber (GF), responds invariantly to looming stimuli across tested azimuthal locations. We confirm visual information propagates to the GF from the contralateral eye through an unidentified pathway and demonstrate that the absence of this pathway alters GF responses to looming stimuli presented to the ipsilateral eye. Our data highlight a role for bilateral visual integration in generating consistent, looming-evoked escape responses that are robust across different stimulus locations and parameters.

  4. Abstract

    A fundamental aspect of symbiotic relationships is host specificity, ranging from extreme specialists associated with only a single host species to generalists associated with many different species. Although symbionts with limited dispersal capabilities are expected to be host specialists, some are able to associate with multiple hosts. Understanding the micro- and macro-evolutionary causes of variations in host specificity is often hindered by sampling biases and the limited power of traditional evolutionary markers. Here, we studied feather mites to address the barriers associated with estimates of host specificity for dispersal-limited symbionts. We sampled feather mites (Proctophyllodidae) from a nearly comprehensive set of North American breeding warblers (Parulidae) to study mite phylogenetic relationships and host–symbiont codiversification. We used pooled-sequencing (Pool-Seq) and short-read Illumina technology to interpret results derived from a traditional barcoding gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) versus 11 protein-coding mitochondrial genes using concatenated and multispecies coalescent approaches. Despite the statistically significant congruence between mite and host phylogenies, mite–host specificity varies widely, and host switching is common regardless of the genetic marker resolution (i.e., barcode vs. multilocus). However, the multilocus approach was more effective than the single barcode in detecting the presence of a heterogeneous Pool-Seq sample. These results suggestmore »that presumed symbiont dispersal capabilities are not always strong indicators of host specificity or of historical host–symbiont coevolutionary events. A comprehensive sampling at fine phylogenetic scales may help to better elucidate the microevolutionary filters that impact macroevolutionary processes regulating symbioses, particularly for dispersal-limited symbionts. [Codiversification; cophylogenetics; feather mites; host switching; pooled sequencing; species delineation; symbiosis, warblers.]

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
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  9. The polarization dependence of hyper-Rayleigh second harmonic light scattering (SHS) and hyper-Raman light scattering (HRS) measured for liquid CDCl 3 show the effect of long-range correlation of molecular orientation and vibration. HRS from the ν 1 , ν 4 , and ν 5 vibration modes is polarized transverse to the scattering wavevector, whereas HRS from the ν 2 , ν 3 , and ν 6 vibration modes and SHS from the ν 0 orientation mode all show longitudinal polarization. The transverse polarized HRS is accounted for by long range vibration correlation due to dipole–dipole interaction for molecules at 20–400 nm separation. Longitudinal SHS and HRS are due to the combined effect of long range dipole–dipole orientation correlation and the increment in the molecular first hyperpolarizability induced by short range intermolecular interactions.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024