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  1. Augmented Reality (AR) devices are set apart from other mobile devices by the immersive experience they offer. While the powerful suite of sensors on modern AR devices is necessary for enabling such an immersive experience, they can create unease in bystanders (i.e., those surrounding the device during its use) due to potential bystander data leaks, which is called the bystander privacy problem. In this paper, we propose BystandAR, the first practical system that can effectively protect bystander visual (camera and depth) data in real-time with only on-device processing. BystandAR builds on a key insight that the device user's eye gaze and voice are highly effective indicators for subject/bystander detection in interpersonal interaction, and leverages novel AR capabilities such as eye gaze tracking, wearer-focused microphone, and spatial awareness to achieve a usable frame rate without offloading sensitive information. Through a 16-participant user study,we show that BystandAR correctly identifies and protects 98.14% of bystanders while allowing access to 96.27% of subjects. We accomplish this with average frame rates of 52.6 frames per second without the need to offload unprotected bystander data to another device. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 18, 2024
  2. Augmented Reality (AR) devices are set apart from other mobile devices by the immersive experience they offer. While the powerful suite of sensors on modern AR devices is necessary for enabling such an immersive experience, they can create unease in bystanders (i.e., those surrounding the device during its use) due to potential bystander data leaks, which is called the bystander privacy problem. In this poster, we propose BystandAR, the first practical system that can effectively protect bystander visual (camera and depth) data in real-time with only on-device processing. BystandAR builds on a key insight that the device user's eye gaze and voice are highly effective indicators for subject/bystander detection in interpersonal interaction, and leverages novel AR capabilities such as eye gaze tracking, wearer-focused microphone, and spatial awareness to achieve a usable frame rate without offloading sensitive information. Through a 16-participant user study, we show that BystandAR correctly identifies and protects 98.14% of bystanders while allowing access to 96.27% of subjects. We accomplish this with average frame rates of 52.6 frames per second without the need to offload unprotected bystander data to another device. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 18, 2024
  3. Eye-tracking is a critical source of information for understanding human behavior and developing future mixed-reality technology. Eye-tracking enables applications that classify user activity or predict user intent. However, eye-tracking datasets collected during common virtual reality tasks have also been shown to enable unique user identification, which creates a privacy risk. In this paper, we focus on the problem of user re-identification from eye-tracking features. We adapt standardized privacy definitions of k-anonymity and plausible deniability to protect datasets of eye-tracking features, and evaluate performance against re-identification by a standard biometric identification model on seven VR datasets. Our results demonstrate that re-identification goes down to chance levels for the privatized datasets, even as utility is preserved to levels higher than 72% accuracy in document type classification. 
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  4. Behavior-based authentication methods are actively being developed for XR. In particular, gaze-based methods promise continuous authentication of remote users. However, gaze behavior depends on the task being performed. Identification rate is typically highest when comparing data from the same task. In this study, we compared authentication performance using VR gaze data during random dot viewing, 360-degree image viewing, and a nuclear training simulation. We found that within-task authentication performed best for image viewing (72%). The implication for practitioners is to integrate image viewing into a VR workflow to collect gaze data that is viable for authentication. 
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  5. This paper presents insights from the PrXR workshop conducted at IEEE VR 2021. We identified several topic areas related to privacy and security risks for virtual, augmented, and mixed-reality (XR) applications. Risks are presented from the perspective of the XR community. We attempt to thematically group the workshop findings and highlight the challenges brought up by the participants. The identified research topics serve as a roadmap to push forward privacy and security research in the context of XR. 
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