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  1. Abstract

    The20Ne(α,p)23Na reaction rate is important in determining the final abundances of various nuclei produced in type Ia supernovae. Previously, the ground state cross section was calculated from time reversal reaction experiments using detailed balance. The reaction rates extracted from these studies do not consider contributions from the population of excited states, and therefore, are only estimates. A resonance scan, populating both the ground and first excited states, was performed for the20Ne(α,p)23Na reaction, measuring between 2.9 and 5 MeV center of mass energies at the Nuclear Science Lab at the University of Notre Dame. Data analysis is underway and preliminary results show substantial contribution from the excited state reaction.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024

    Understanding quenching mechanisms in low-mass galaxies is essential for understanding galaxy evolution overall. In particular, isolated galaxies are important tools to help disentangle the complex internal and external processes that impact star formation. Comparisons between quenched field and satellite galaxies in the low-mass regime offer a substantial opportunity for discovery, although very few quenched galaxies with masses below $M_{\star }\, \sim \, 10^{9} {\rm M}_{\odot }$ are known outside the virial radius, Rvir, of any host halo. Importantly, simulations and observations suggest that an in-between population of backsplash galaxies also exists that may complement interpretations of environmental quenching. Backsplash galaxies – like field galaxies – reside outside the virial radius of a host halo, but their star formation can be deeply impacted by previous interactions with more massive systems. In this paper, we report the concurrent discovery of a low-mass ($M_{\star }\, \sim \, 10^{7} {\rm M}_{\odot }$) quenched galaxy approximately 1Rvir in projection from the M81 group. We use surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) to investigate the possibility that the new galaxy, dw0910+7326 (nicknamed Blobby), is a backsplash galaxy or a more distant field galaxy. The measured SBF distance of $3.21\substack{+0.15 +0.41 \\-0.15 -0.36}$ Mpc indicates that Blobby likely lies in the range 1.0 < R/Rvir < 2.7 outside the combined M81–M82 system. Given its distance and quiescence, Blobby is a good candidate for a backsplash galaxy and could provide hints about the formation and evolution of these interesting objects.

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  3. Abstract

    Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on a carbonate‐silicate‐metal melt were performed to study speciation and coordination changes as a function of pressure and temperature. We examine in detail the bond abundances of specific element pairs and the distribution of coordination environments over conditions spanning Earth’s present‐day mantle. Average coordination numbers increase continuously from 4 to 8 for Fe and Mg, from 4 to 6 for Si, and from 2 to 4 for C from 1 to 148 GPa (4,000 K). Speciation across all pressure and temperature conditions is complex due to the unusual bonding of carbon. With the increasing pressure, C‐C and C‐Fe bonding increase significantly, resulting in the formation of carbon polymers, C‐Fe clusters, and the loss of carbonate groups. The increased bonding of carbon with elements other than oxygen indicates that carbon begins to replace oxygen as an anion in the melt network. We evaluate our results in the context of diamond formation and of metal‐silicate partitioning behavior of carbon. Our work has implications for properties of carbon and metal‐bearing silicate melts, such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, and reactivity with surrounding phases.

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  4. Abstract We present observations of ≳10–100 keV nucleon −1 suprathermal (ST) H, He, O, and Fe ions associated with crossings of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) at radial distances of <0.1 au from the Sun. Our key findings are as follows: (1) very few heavy ions are detected during the first full crossing, the heavy-ion intensities are reduced during the second partial crossing and peak just after the second crossing; (2) ion arrival times exhibit no velocity dispersion; (3) He pitch-angle distributions track the magnetic field polarity reversal and show up to ∼10:1 anti-sunward, field-aligned flows and beams closer to the HCS that become nearly isotropic farther from the HCS; (4) the He spectrum steepens either side of the HCS, and the He, O, and Fe spectra exhibit power laws of the form ∼ E −4 – E 6 ; and (5) maximum energies E X increase with the ion’s charge-to-mass ( Q / M ) ratio as E X / E H ∝ ( Q X / M X ) δ , where δ ∼ 0.65–0.76, assuming that the average Q states are similar to those measured in gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle events at 1 au. The absence of velocity dispersion in combination with strong field-aligned anisotropies closer to the HCS appears to rule out solar flares and near-Sun coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks. These new observations present challenges not only for mechanisms that employ direct parallel electric fields and organize maximum energies according to E / Q but also for local diffusive and magnetic-reconnection-driven acceleration models. Reevaluation of our current understanding of the production and transport of energetic ions is necessary to understand this near-solar, current-sheet-associated population of ST ions. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present the first satellite system of the Large Binocular Telescope Satellites Of Nearby Galaxies Survey (LBT-SONG), a survey to characterize the close satellite populations of Large Magellanic Cloud to Milky-Way-mass, star-forming galaxies in the Local Volume. In this paper, we describe our unresolved diffuse satellite finding and completeness measurement methodology and apply this framework to NGC 628, an isolated galaxy with ∼1/4 the stellar mass of the Milky Way. We present two new dwarf satellite galaxy candidates: NGC 628 dwA, and dwB with MV = −12.2 and −7.7, respectively. NGC 628 dwA is a classical dwarf while NGC 628 dwB is a low-luminosity galaxy that appears to have been quenched after reionization. Completeness corrections indicate that the presence of these two satellites is consistent with CDM predictions. The satellite colours indicate that the galaxies are neither actively star forming nor do they have the purely ancient stellar populations characteristic of ultrafaint dwarfs. Instead, and consistent with our previous work on the NGC 4214 system, they show signs of recent quenching, further indicating that environmental quenching can play a role in modifying satellite populations even for hosts smaller than the Milky Way. 
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024