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  1. Abstract We investigate the kinematic properties of Galactic H ii regions using radio recombination line (RRL) emission detected by the Australia Telescope Compact Array at 4–10 GHz and the Jansky Very Large Array at 8–10 GHz. Our H ii region sample consists of 425 independent observations of 374 nebulae that are relatively well isolated from other, potentially confusing sources and have a single RRL component with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We perform Gaussian fits to the RRL emission in position-position–velocity data cubes and discover velocity gradients in 178 (42%) of the nebulae with magnitudes between 5 and 200 m s − 1 arcsec − 1 . About 15% of the sources also have an RRL width spatial distribution that peaks toward the center of the nebula. The velocity gradient position angles appear to be random on the sky with no favored orientation with respect to the Galactic plane. We craft H ii region simulations that include bipolar outflows or solid body rotational motions to explain the observed velocity gradients. The simulations favor solid body rotation since, unlike the bipolar outflow kinematic models, they are able to produce both the large, >40 m s − 1 arcsec − 1 , velocitymore »gradients and also the RRL width structure that we observe in some sources. The bipolar outflow model, however, cannot be ruled out as a possible explanation for the observed velocity gradients for many sources in our sample. We nevertheless suggest that most H ii region complexes are rotating and may have inherited angular momentum from their parent molecular clouds.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. Abstract Using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to measure 21 cm absorption spectra toward continuum background sources, we study the cool phase of the neutral atomic gas in the far outer disk, and in the inner Galaxy near the end of the Galactic bar at longitude 340°. In the inner Galaxy, the cool atomic gas has a smaller scale height than in the solar neighborhood, similar to the molecular gas and the super-thin stellar population in the bar. In the outer Galaxy, the cool atomic gas is mixed with the warm, neutral medium, with the cool fraction staying roughly constant with the Galactic radius. The ratio of the emission brightness temperature to the absorption, i.e., 1 − e − τ , is roughly constant for velocities corresponding to Galactic radius greater than about twice the solar circle radius. The ratio has a value of about 300 K, but this does not correspond to a physical temperature in the gas. If the gas causing the absorption has kinetic temperature of about 100 K, as in the solar neighborhood, then the value 300 K indicates that the fraction of the gas mass in this phase is one-third of the total Hmore »i mass.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Abstract We present the most sensitive and detailed view of the neutral hydrogen ( ${\rm H\small I}$ ) emission associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), through the combination of data from the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and Parkes (Murriyang), as part of the Galactic Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (GASKAP) pilot survey. These GASKAP-HI pilot observations, for the first time, reveal ${\rm H\small I}$ in the SMC on similar physical scales as other important tracers of the interstellar medium, such as molecular gas and dust. The resultant image cube possesses an rms noise level of 1.1 K ( $1.6\,\mathrm{mJy\ beam}^{-1}$ ) $\mathrm{per}\ 0.98\,\mathrm{km\ s}^{-1}$ spectral channel with an angular resolution of $30^{\prime\prime}$ ( ${\sim}10\,\mathrm{pc}$ ). We discuss the calibration scheme and the custom imaging pipeline that utilises a joint deconvolution approach, efficiently distributed across a computing cluster, to accurately recover the emission extending across the entire ${\sim}25\,\mathrm{deg}^2$ field-of-view. We provide an overview of the data products and characterise several aspects including the noise properties as a function of angular resolution and the represented spatial scales by deriving the global transfer function over the full spectral range. A preliminary spatial power spectrum analysis on individual spectral channels revealsmore »that the power law nature of the density distribution extends down to scales of 10 pc. We highlight the scientific potential of these data by comparing the properties of an outflowing high-velocity cloud with previous ASKAP+Parkes ${\rm H\small I}$ test observations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT We report on the discovery and validation of TOI 813 b (TIC 55525572 b), a transiting exoplanet identified by citizen scientists in data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the first planet discovered by the Planet Hunters TESS project. The host star is a bright (V = 10.3 mag) subgiant ($R_\star =1.94\, R_\odot$, $M_\star =1.32\, M_\odot$). It was observed almost continuously by TESS during its first year of operations, during which time four individual transit events were detected. The candidate passed all the standard light curve-based vetting checks, and ground-based follow-up spectroscopy and speckle imaging enabled us to place an upper limit of $2\, M_{\rm Jup}$ (99 per cent confidence) on the mass of the companion, and to statistically validate its planetary nature. Detailed modelling of the transits yields a period of $83.8911 _{ - 0.0031 } ^ { + 0.0027 }$ d, a planet radius of 6.71 ± 0.38 R⊕ and a semimajor axis of $0.423 _{ - 0.037 } ^ { + 0.031 }$ AU. The planet’s orbital period combined with the evolved nature of the host star places this object in a relatively underexplored region of parameter space. We estimate that TOI 813 b induces a reflex motion in its host star with a semi-amplitude of ∼6 m s−1, makingmore »this a promising system to measure the mass of a relatively long-period transiting planet.« less