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  1. Abstract

    FeSe1−xSxremains one of the most enigmatic systems of Fe-based superconductors. While much is known about the orthorhombic parent compound, FeSe, the tetragonal samples, FeSe1−xSxwithx > 0.17, remain relatively unexplored. Here, we provide an in-depth investigation of the electronic states of tetragonal FeSe0.81S0.19, using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements, supported by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and theoretical modeling. We analyze modulations of the local density of states (LDOS) near and away from Fe vacancy defects separately and identify quasiparticle interference (QPI) signals originating from multiple regions of the Brillouin zone, including the bands at the zone corners. We also observe that QPI signals coexist with a much stronger LDOS modulation for states near the Fermi level whose period is independent of energy. Our measurements further reveal that this strong pattern appears in the STS measurements as short range stripe patterns that are locally two-fold symmetric. Since these stripe patterns coexist with four-fold symmetric QPI around Fe-vacancies, the origin of their local two-fold symmetry must be distinct from that of nematic states in orthorhombic samples. We explore several aspects related to the stripes, such as the role of S and Fe-vacancy defects, and whether they can be explained by QPI. We consider the possibility that the observed stripe patterns may represent incipient charge order correlations, similar to those observed in the cuprates.

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  3. Ultrafast spectroscopies have become an important tool for elucidating the microscopic description and dynamical properties of quantum materials. In particular, by tracking the dynamics of nonthermal electrons, a material’s dominant scattering processes can be revealed. Here, we present a method for extracting the electron-phonon coupling strength in the time domain, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). This method is demonstrated in graphite, where we investigate the dynamics of photoinjected electrons at theK¯point, detecting quantized energy-loss processes that correspond to the emission of strongly coupled optical phonons. We show that the observed characteristic time scale for spectral weight transfer mediated by phonon-scattering processes allows for the direct quantitative extraction of electron-phonon matrix elements for specific modes.

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