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  1. Abstract Initially classified as a Type Ib supernova (SN), ∼100 days after the explosion SN 2014C made a transition to a Type II SN, presenting a gradual increase in the H α emission. This has been interpreted as evidence of interaction between the SN shock wave and a massive shell previously ejected from the progenitor star. In this paper we present numerical simulations of the propagation of the SN shock through the progenitor star and its wind, as well as the interaction of the SN ejecta with the massive shell. To determine with high precision the structure and location of the shell, we couple a genetic algorithm to a hydrodynamic and a bremsstrahlung radiation transfer code. We iteratively modify the density stratification and location of the shell by minimizing the variance between X-ray observations and synthetic predictions computed from the numerical model, allowing the shell structure to be completely arbitrary. By assuming spherical symmetry, we found that our best-fit model has a shell mass of 2.6 M ⊙ ; extends from 1.6 × 10 16 cm to 1.87 × 10 17 cm, implying that it was ejected ∼ 60/( v w /100 km s −1 ) yr before the SNmore »explosion; and has a density stratification with an average behavior ∼ r −3 but presenting density fluctuations larger than one order of magnitude. Finally, we predict that if the density stratification follows the same power-law behavior, the SN will break out from the shell by mid-2022, i.e., 8.5 yr after explosion.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated to the collapse of a massive star and the formation of a relativistic jet. As the jet propagates through the star, it forms an extended, hot cocoon. The dynamical evolution of the jet/cocoon system and its interaction with the environment has been studied extensively both analytically and numerically. On the other hand, the role played by the supernova (SN) explosion associated with LGRBs in determining the outcome of the system has been barely considered. In this paper, we discuss the large landscape of outcomes resulting from the interaction of the SN, jet, and cocoon. We show that the outcome depends mainly on three time-scales: the times for the cocoon and SN shock wave to break through the surface of the progenitor star, and the time needed for the cocoon to engulf completely the progenitor star. The delay between the launch of the SN shock moving through the progenitor star and the jet can be related to these three time-scales. Depending on the ordering of these time-scales, the jet-cocoon might propagate inside the SN ejecta or the other way around, and the outcome for the properties of the explosion would be different. We discussmore »the imprint of the complex interaction between the jet-cocoon and the SN shock on the emergent thermal and non-thermal radiation.

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  3. Abstract We present a population of 19 radio-luminous supernovae (SNe) with emission reaching L ν ∼ 10 26 –10 29 erg s −1 Hz −1 in the first epoch of the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS) at 2–4 GHz. Our sample includes one long gamma-ray burst, SN 2017iuk/GRB 171205A, and 18 core-collapse SNe detected at ≈1–60 yr after explosion. No thermonuclear explosion shows evidence for bright radio emission, and hydrogen-poor progenitors dominate the subsample of core-collapse events with spectroscopic classification at the time of explosion (79%). We interpret these findings in the context of the expected radio emission from the forward shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). We conclude that these observations require a departure from the single wind–like density profile (i.e., ρ CSM ∝ r −2 ) that is expected around massive stars and/or from a spherical Newtonian shock. Viable alternatives include the shock interaction with a detached, dense shell of CSM formed by a large effective progenitor mass-loss rate, M ̇ ∼ 10 − 4 – 10 − 1 M ⊙ yr −1 (for an assumed wind velocity of 1000 km s −1 ); emission from an off-axis relativistic jet entering our line of sight; ormore »the emergence of emission from a newly born pulsar-wind nebula. The relativistic SN 2012ap that is detected 5.7 and 8.5 yr after explosion with L ν ∼ 10 28 erg s −1 Hz −1 might constitute the first detections of an off-axis jet+cocoon system in a massive star. However, none of the VLASS SNe with archival data points are consistent with our model off-axis jet light curves. Future multiwavelength observations will distinguish among these scenarios. Our VLASS source catalogs, which were used to perform the VLASS cross-matching, are publicly available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4895112 .« less
  4. ABSTRACT The discovery of GRB 170817A, the first unambiguous off-axis short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) arising from a neutron star merger, has challenged our understanding of the angular structure of relativistic jets. Studies of the jet propagation usually assume that the jet is ejected from the central engine with a top-hat structure and its final structure, which determines the observed light curve and spectra, is primarily regulated by the interaction with the nearby environment. However, jets are expected to be produced with a structure that is more complex than a simple top-hat, as shown by global accretion simulations. We present numerical simulations of sGRBs launched with a wide range of initial structures, durations, and luminosities. We follow the jet interaction with the merger remnant wind and compute its final structure at distances ≳1011 cm from the central engine. We show that the final jet structure, as well as the resulting afterglow emission, depends strongly on the initial structure of the jet, its luminosity, and duration. While the initial structure of the jet is preserved for long-lasting sGRBs, it is strongly modified for jets barely making their way through the wind. This illustrates the importance of combining the results of global simulations withmore »propagation studies in order to better predict the expected afterglow signatures from neutron star mergers. Structured jets provide a reasonable description of the GRB 170817A afterglow emission with an off-axis angle θobs ≈ 22.5°.« less
  5. ABSTRACT

    We present small-scale 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of a 0.3 M⊙ main-sequence (MS) star that launches two perpendicular jets within the envelope of a 0.88 M⊙ red giant (RG). Based on previous large-scale simulations, we study the dynamics of the jets either when the secondary star is grazing, when it has plunged-in, or when it is well within the envelope of the RG (in each stage for ∼11 d). The dynamics of the jets through the common envelope (CE) depend on the conditions of the environment as well as on their powering. In the grazing stage and the commencement of the plunge self-regulated jets need higher efficiencies to break out of the envelope of the RG. Deep inside the CE, on the time-scales simulated, jets are choked independently of whether they are self-regulated or constantly powered. Jets able to break out of the envelope of the RG in large-scale simulations, are choked in our small-scale simulations. The accreted angular momentum on to the secondary star is not large enough to form a disc. The mass accretion on to the MS star is 1–10 per cent of the Bondi–Hoyle–Littleton rate (∼10−3–10−1 M⊙ yr−1). High-luminosity emission, from X-rays to ultraviolet and optical, is expected ifmore »the jets break out of the CE. Our simulations illustrate the need for inclusion of more realistic accretion and jet models in the dynamical evolution of the CEs.

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