Recent work has demonstrated that geometric deep learning methods such as graph neural networks (GNNs) are well suited to address a variety of reconstruction problems in high-energy particle physics. In particular, particle tracking data are naturally represented as a graph by identifying silicon tracker hits as nodes and particle trajectories as edges, given a set of hypothesized edges, edge-classifying GNNs identify those corresponding to real particle trajectories. In this work, we adapt the physics-motivated interaction network (IN) GNN toward the problem of particle tracking in pileup conditions similar to those expected at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Assuming idealized hit filtering at various particle momenta thresholds, we demonstrate the IN’s excellent edge-classification accuracy and tracking efficiency through a suite of measurements at each stage of GNN-based tracking: graph construction, edge classification, and track building. The proposed IN architecture is substantially smaller than previously studied GNN tracking architectures; this is particularly promising as a reduction in size is critical for enabling GNN-based tracking in constrained computing environments. Furthermore, the IN may be represented as either a set of explicit matrix operations or a message passing GNN. Efforts are underway to accelerate each representation via heterogeneous computing resources towards both high-levelmore »
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The determination of charged particle trajectories in collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is an important but challenging problem, especially in the high interaction density conditions expected during the future high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC). Graph neural networks (GNNs) are a type of geometric deep learning algorithm that has successfully been applied to this task by embedding tracker data as a graph—nodes represent hits, while edges represent possible track segments—and classifying the edges as true or fake track segments. However, their study in hardware- or software-based trigger applications has been limited due to their large computational cost. In this paper, we introduce an automated translation workflow, integrated into a broader tool called hls4ml , for converting GNNs into firmware for field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). We use this translation tool to implement GNNs for charged particle tracking, trained using the TrackML challenge dataset, on FPGAs with designs targeting different graph sizes, task complexites, and latency/throughput requirements. This work could enable the inclusion of charged particle tracking GNNs at the trigger level for HL-LHC experiments.
Abstract The Exa.TrkX project has applied geometric learning concepts such as metric learning and graph neural networks to HEP particle tracking. Exa.TrkX’s tracking pipeline groups detector measurements to form track candidates and filters them. The pipeline, originally developed using the TrackML dataset (a simulation of an LHC-inspired tracking detector), has been demonstrated on other detectors, including DUNE Liquid Argon TPC and CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter. This paper documents new developments needed to study the physics and computing performance of the Exa.TrkX pipeline on the full TrackML dataset, a first step towards validating the pipeline using ATLAS and CMS data. The pipeline achieves tracking efficiency and purity similar to production tracking algorithms. Crucially for future HEP applications, the pipeline benefits significantly from GPU acceleration, and its computational requirements scale close to linearly with the number of particles in the event.
We develop and study FPGA implementations of algorithms for charged particle tracking based on graph neural networks. The two complementary FPGA designs are based on OpenCL, a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms, and hls4ml, a high-level-synthesis-based compiler for neural network to firmware conversion. We evaluate and compare the resource usage, latency, and tracking performance of our implementations based on a benchmark dataset. We find a considerable speedup over CPU-based execution is possible, potentially enabling such algorithms to be used effectively in future computing workflows and the FPGA-based Level-1 trigger at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
A new calibration method for charm jet identification validated with proton-proton collision events at √s = 13 TeVAbstract Many measurements at the LHC require efficient identification of heavy-flavour jets, i.e. jets originating from bottom (b) or charm (c) quarks. An overview of the algorithms used to identify c jets is described and a novel method to calibrate them is presented. This new method adjusts the entire distributions of the outputs obtained when the algorithms are applied to jets of different flavours. It is based on an iterative approach exploiting three distinct control regions that are enriched with either b jets, c jets, or light-flavour and gluon jets. Results are presented in the form of correction factors evaluated using proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of 41.5 fb -1 at √s = 13 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment in 2017. The closure of the method is tested by applying the measured correction factors on simulated data sets and checking the agreement between the adjusted simulation and collision data. Furthermore, a validation is performed by testing the method on pseudodata, which emulate various mismodelling conditions. The calibrated results enable the use of the full distributions of heavy-flavour identification algorithm outputs, e.g. as inputs to machine-learning models. Thus, they are expected to increase the sensitivity of future physicsmore »