skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Dekkers, Mark J."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Authigenic greigite may form at any time within a sediment during diagenesis. Its formation pathway, timing of formation, and geological preservation potential are key to resolving the fidelity of (paleo‐)magnetic signals in greigite‐bearing sediments. In the cored sequence of the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 362 (Sumatra Subduction Margin), multiple organic‐rich mudstone horizons have high magnetic susceptibilities. The high‐susceptibility horizons occur immediately below the most bioturbated intervals at the top of muddy turbidite beds. Combined mineral magnetic, microscopic, and chemical analyses on both thin sections and magnetic mineral extracts of sediments from a typical interval (∼1,103.80–1,108.80 m below seafloor) reveal the presence of coarse‐grained greigite aggregates (particles up to 50–75 μm in size). The greigite formed under nonsteady state conditions caused by the successive turbidites. Organic matter, iron (oxy)(hydr)oxides, Fe2+, and sulfides and/or sulfate were enriched in these intensively bioturbated horizons. This facilitated greigite formation and preservation within a closed diagenetic system created by the ensuing turbidite pulse, where pyritization was arrested due to insufficient sulfate supply relative to Fe (oxy)(hydr)oxide. This may represent a novel greigite formation pathway under conditions modulated by turbidites and bioturbation. Paleomagnetic analyses indicate that the early diagenetic greigite preserves primary (quasi‐)syn‐sedimentary magnetic records. The extremely high greigite content (0.06–1.30 wt% with an average of 0.50 wt% estimated from their saturation magnetization) implies that the bioturbated turbiditic deposits are an important sink for iron and sulfur. Mineral magnetic methods, thus, may offer a window to better understand the marine Fe–S–C cycle.

    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract

    Recognition of coring‐induced disturbance, which is essential for magnetic fabric and paleomagnetic studies of poorly lithified sediments, is generally not straightforward. Here, we report on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic data of the sediments from Holes U1480E and U1480H, IODP Expedition 362, west of the Sumatra subduction zone. AMS is characterized by steep minimum principal axes (Kmin) in undisturbed sediments. However, a considerable portion of the recovered sediments are affected by significant coring‐induced disturbance. In these cases, we observed three AMS patterns: (1) AMS principal axes are randomly distributed for sediments with mingling and distortion of beds, (2)Kminaxes of sediments with upward‐arching beds are deflected out of the splitting face of the working half, and (3) suck‐in sediments are characterized by verticalKmaxaxes. These deformation‐dependent AMS patterns can be attributed to the realignment of mineral particles caused by the coring process and subsequent sampling procedures. Besides a low‐coercivity, vertical, drilling‐induced overprint, we observed a high‐coercivity component that is likely a composite of the primary magnetization with a demagnetization‐resistant portion of the drilling overprint. After accounting for the disturbed intervals, several polarity transitions can be identified in the undisturbed sediments which correlate well with the Pleistocene geomagnetic polarity timescale. These observations demonstrate that great caution is required when attributing geological significance to AMS and paleomagnetic data obtained from soft sediment cores, which are highly susceptible to coring‐induced disturbance. In addition, AMS measurements provide a potential tool for identifying core deformation for further paleomagnetic studies.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    As iron‐bearing minerals—ferrimagnetic minerals in particular—are sensitive to stress, temperature, and presence of fluids in fault zones, their magnetic properties provide valuable insights into physical and chemical processes affecting fault rocks. Here, we review the advances made in magnetic studies of fault rocks in the past three decades. We provide a synthesis of the mechanisms that account for the magnetic changes in fault rocks and insights gained from magnetic research. We also integrate nonmagnetic approaches in the evaluation of the magnetic properties of fault rocks. Magnetic analysis unveils microscopic processes operating in the fault zones such as frictional heating, energy dissipation, and fluid percolation that are otherwise difficult to constrain. This makes magnetic properties suited as a “strain indicator,” a “geothermometer,” and a “fluid tracer” in fault zones. However, a full understanding of faulting‐induced magnetic changes has not been accomplished yet. Future research should focus on detailed magnetic property analysis of fault zones including magnetic microscanning and magnetic fabric analysis. To calibrate the observations on natural fault zones, laboratory experiments should be carried out that enable to extract the exact physicochemical conditions that led to a certain magnetic signature. Potential avenues could include (1) magnetic investigations on natural and synthetic fault rocks after friction experiments, (2) laboratory simulation of fault fluid percolation, (3) paleomagnetic analysis of postkinematic remanence components associated with faulting processes, and (4) synergy of interdisciplinary approaches in mineral‐magnetic studies. This would help to place our understanding of the microphysics of faulting on a much stronger footing.

    more » « less