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  1. Abstract. Oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3,DMS) have long been recognized to impact aerosol particle composition andsize, the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and Earth'sradiation balance. The impact of oceanic emissions of methanethiol(CH3SH, MeSH), which is produced by the same oceanic precursor as DMS,on the volatile sulfur budget of the marine atmosphere is largelyunconstrained. Here we present direct flux measurements of MeSH oceanicemissions using the eddy covariance (EC) method with a high-resolutionproton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToFMS)detector and compare them to simultaneous flux measurements of DMS emissionsfrom a coastal ocean site. Campaign mean mixing ratios of DMS and MeSH were72 pptmore »(28–90 ppt interquartile range) and 19.1 ppt (7.6–24.5 pptinterquartile range), respectively. Campaign mean emission fluxes of DMS (FDMS) and MeSH (FMeSH) were 1.13 ppt m s−1 (0.53–1.61 ppt m s−1 interquartile range) and 0.21 ppt m s−1 (0.10–0.31 ppt m s−1 interquartile range), respectively. Linear least squares regression of observed MeSH and DMS flux indicates the emissions are highly correlatedwith each other (R2=0.65) over the course of the campaign,consistent with a shared oceanic source. The campaign mean DMS to MeSH fluxratio (FDMS:FMeSH) was 5.5 ± 3.0, calculated from the ratio of 304 individual coincident measurements of FDMS and FMeSH. Measured FDMS:FMeSH was weakly correlated (R2=0.15) withocean chlorophyll concentrations, with FDMS:FMeSH reaching a maximumof 10.8 ± 4.4 during a phytoplankton bloom period. No other volatilesulfur compounds were observed by PTR-ToFMS to have a resolvable emissionflux above their flux limit of detection or to have a gas-phase mixing ratio consistently above their limit of detection during the study period,suggesting DMS and MeSH are the dominant volatile organic sulfur compoundsemitted from the ocean at this site. The impact of this MeSH emission source on atmospheric budgets of sulfurdioxide (SO2) was evaluated by implementing observed emissions in a coupled ocean–atmosphere chemical box model using a newly compiled MeSHoxidation mechanism. Model results suggest that MeSH emissions lead toafternoon instantaneous SO2 production of 2.5 ppt h−1, which results in a 43 % increase in total SO2 production compared to a casewhere only DMS emissions are considered and accounts for 30% of theinstantaneous SO2 production in the marine boundary layer at the meanmeasured FDMS and FMeSH. This contribution of MeSH to SO2production is driven by a higher effective yield of SO2 from MeSHoxidation and the shorter oxidation lifetime of MeSH compared to DMS. Thislarge additional source of marine SO2 has not been previouslyconsidered in global models of marine sulfur cycling. The field measurementsand modeling results presented here demonstrate that MeSH is an importantcontributor to volatile sulfur budgets in the marine atmosphere and must be measured along with DMS in order to constrain marine sulfur budgets. Thislarge additional source of marine–reduced sulfur from MeSH will contribute to particle formation and growth and CCN abundance in the marine atmosphere, with subsequent impacts on climate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract. The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS;CH3SCH3), emitted from the surface ocean, contributes to theformation of Aitken mode particles and their growth to cloud condensationnuclei (CCN) sizes in remote marine environments. It is not clear whetherother less commonly measured marine-derived, sulfur-containing gases sharesimilar dynamics to DMS and contribute to secondary marine aerosolformation. Here, we present measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfurmolecules taken with a Vocus proton-transfer-reaction high-resolutiontime-of-flight mass spectrometer during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloomexperiment using coastal seawater. We show that DMS, methanethiol (MeSH;CH3SH), and benzothiazole (C7H5NS) account for on averageover 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions, with non-DMS sulfur sourcesrepresenting 36.8 ± 7.7 %more »of sulfur emissions during the first 9 d of the experiment in the pre-bloom phase prior to major biologicalgrowth, before declining to 14.5 ± 6.0 % in the latter half of theexperiment when DMS dominates during the bloom and decay phases. The molarratio of DMS to MeSH during the pre-bloom phase (DMS : MeSH = 4.60 ± 0.93) was consistent with the range of previously calculated ambient DMS-to-MeSH sea-to-air flux ratios. As the experiment progressed, the DMS to MeSHemission ratio increased significantly, reaching 31.8 ± 18.7 duringthe bloom and decay. Measurements of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP),heterotrophic bacteria, and enzyme activity in the seawater suggest theDMS : MeSH ratio is a sensitive indicator of the bacterial sulfur demand andthe composition and magnitude of available sulfur sources in seawater. Theevolving DMS : MeSH ratio and the emission of a new aerosol precursor gas,benzothiazole, have important implications for secondary sulfate formationpathways in coastal marine environments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 7, 2022
  4. Marine aerosols strongly influence climate through their interactions with solar radiation and clouds. However, significant questions remain regarding the influences of biological activity and seawater chemistry on the flux, chemical composition, and climate-relevant properties of marine aerosols and gases. Wave channels, a traditional tool of physical oceanography, have been adapted for large-scale ocean-atmosphere mesocosm experiments in the laboratory. These experiments enable the study of aerosols under controlled conditions which isolate the marine system from atmospheric anthropogenic and terrestrial influences. Here, we present an overview of the 2019 Sea Spray Chemistry and Particle Evolution (SeaSCAPE) study, which was conducted in anmore »11 800 L wave channel which was modified to facilitate atmospheric measurements. The SeaSCAPE campaign sought to determine the influence of biological activity in seawater on the production of primary sea spray aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and secondary marine aerosols. Notably, the SeaSCAPE experiment also focused on understanding how photooxidative aging processes transform the composition of marine aerosols. In addition to a broad range of aerosol, gas, and seawater measurements, we present key results which highlight the experimental capabilities during the campaign, including the phytoplankton bloom dynamics, VOC production, and the effects of photochemical aging on aerosol production, morphology, and chemical composition. Additionally, we discuss the modifications made to the wave channel to improve aerosol production and reduce background contamination, as well as subsequent characterization experiments. The SeaSCAPE experiment provides unique insight into the connections between marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and climate-relevant aerosol properties, and demonstrates how an ocean-atmosphere-interaction facility can be used to isolate and study reactions in the marine atmosphere in the laboratory under more controlled conditions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 20, 2023
  5. Abstract Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, describes interactions of coloured quarks and gluons and the formation of hadronic matter. Conventional hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, respectively. Particles with an alternative quark content are known as exotic states. Here a study is reported of an exotic narrow state in the D 0 D 0 π + mass spectrum just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold produced in proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The state is consistent with the ground isoscalarmore »$${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + tetraquark with a quark content of $${{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{u}}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{d}}}}}}}$$ c c u ¯ d ¯ and spin-parity quantum numbers J P  = 1 + . Study of the DD mass spectra disfavours interpretation of the resonance as the isovector state. The decay structure via intermediate off-shell D *+ mesons is consistent with the observed D 0 π + mass distribution. To analyse the mass of the resonance and its coupling to the D * D system, a dedicated model is developed under the assumption of an isoscalar axial-vector $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state decaying to the D * D channel. Using this model, resonance parameters including the pole position, scattering length, effective range and compositeness are determined to reveal important information about the nature of the $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state. In addition, an unexpected dependence of the production rate on track multiplicity is observed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Conventional, hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and a quark–antiquark pair, respectively 1,2 . Here, we report the observation of a hadronic state containing four quarks in the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment. This so-called tetraquark contains two charm quarks, a $$\overline{{{{{u}}}}}$$ u ¯ and a $$\overline{{{{{d}}}}}$$ d ¯ quark. This exotic state has a mass of approximately 3,875 MeV and manifests as a narrow peak in the mass spectrum of D 0 D 0 π + mesons just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold. The near-threshold mass together with the narrow widthmore »reveals the resonance nature of the state.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  7. A bstract A precision measurement of the Z boson production cross-section at $$ \sqrt{\mathrm{s}} $$ s = 13 TeV in the forward region is presented, using pp collision data collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb − 1 . The production cross-section is measured using Z → μ + μ − events within the fiducial region defined as pseudorapidity 2 . 0 < η < 4 . 5 and transverse momentum p T > 20 GeV /c for both muons and dimuon invariant mass 60 < M μμ < 120 GeV /c 2 .more »The integrated cross-section is determined to be $$ \sigma \left(Z\to {\mu}^{+}{\mu}^{-}\right)=196.4\pm 0.2\pm 1.6\pm 3.9\ \mathrm{pb}, $$ σ Z → μ + μ − = 196.4 ± 0.2 ± 1.6 ± 3.9 pb , where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the luminosity determination. The measured results are in agreement with theoretical predictions within uncertainties.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  8. A bstract Coherent production of J/ψ mesons is studied in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5 TeV, using a data sample collected by the LHCb experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 10 μb −1 . The J/ψ mesons are reconstructed in the dimuon final state and are required to have transverse momentum below 1 GeV. The cross-section within the rapidity range of 2 . 0 < y < 4 . 5 is measured to be 4 . 45 ± 0 . 24 ± 0 . 18 ± 0 . 58 mb, where the firstmore »uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third originates from the luminosity determination. The cross-section is also measured in J/ψ rapidity intervals. The results are compared to predictions from phenomenological models.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  10. Abstract The centrality of heavy-ion collisions is directly related to the created medium in these interactions. A procedure to determine the centrality of collisions with the LHCb detector is implemented for lead-lead collisions at √ s NN = 5 TeV and lead-neon fixed-target collisions at √ s NN = 69 GeV. The energy deposits in the electromagnetic calorimeter are used to determine and define the centrality classes. The correspondence between the number of participants and the centrality for the lead-lead collisions is in good agreement with the correspondence found in other experiments, and the centrality measurements for the lead-neon collisionsmore »presented here are performed for the first time in fixed-target collisions at the LHC.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023