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    We analyse high-resolution spectra of two classical novae that exploded in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). 7Be ii resonance transitions are detected in both ASASSN-19qv and ASASSN-20ni novae. This is the first detection outside the Galaxy and confirms that thermo-nuclear runaway reactions, leading to the 7Be formation, are effective also in the low-metallicity regime, characteristic of the SMC. Derived yields are of N(7Be = 7Li)/N(H)  = (5.3 ± 0.2) × 10−6 which are a factor 4 lower than the typical values of the Galaxy. Inspection of two historical novae in the Large Magellanic Cloud observed with IUE in 1991 and 1992 showed also the possible presence of 7Be and similar yields. For an ejecta of MH, ej = 10−5 M⊙, the amount of 7Li produced is of $M_{^7 Li} = (3.7 \pm 0.6) \times 10^{-10}$ M⊙ per nova event. Detailed chemical evolutionary model for the SMC shows that novae could have made an amount of lithium in the SMC corresponding to a fractional abundance of A(Li) ≈ 2.6. Therefore, it is argued that a comparison with the abundance of Li in the SMC, as measured by its interstellar medium, could effectively constrain the amount of the initial abundance of primordial Li, which is currently controversial.

  2. We present a new calibration of the peak absolute magnitude of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) based on the surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) method, aimed at measuring the value of the Hubble constant. We build a sample of calibrating anchors consisting of 24 SNe hosted in galaxies that have SBF distance measurements. Applying a hierarchical Bayesian approach, we calibrate the SN Ia peak luminosity and extend the Hubble diagram into the Hubble flow by using a sample of 96 SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.02 <  z  < 0.075, which was extracted from the Combined Pantheon Sample. We estimate a value of H 0  = 70.50 ± 2.37 (stat.) ± 3.38 (sys.) km s −1 Mpc −1 (i.e., 3.4% stat., 4.8% sys.), which is in agreement with the value obtained using the tip of the red giant branch calibration. It is also consistent, within errors, with the value obtained from SNe Ia calibrated with Cepheids or the value inferred from the analysis of the cosmic microwave background. We find that the SNe Ia distance moduli calibrated with SBF are on average larger by 0.07 mag than those calibrated with Cepheids. Our results point to possible differences among SNe in different types of galaxies, which could originate from differentmore »local environments and/or progenitor properties of SNe Ia. Sampling different host galaxy types, SBF offers a complementary approach to using Cepheids, which is important in addressing possible systematics. As the SBF method has the ability to reach larger distances than Cepheids, the impending entry of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory and JWST into operation will increase the number of SNe Ia hosted in galaxies where SBF distances can be measured, making SBF measurements attractive for improving the calibration of SNe Ia, as well as in the estimation of H 0 .« less
  3. Abstract We present observations of three core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in elliptical hosts, detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility Bright Transient Survey (BTS). SN 2019ape is a SN Ic that exploded in the main body of a typical elliptical galaxy. Its properties are consistent with an explosion of a regular SN Ic progenitor. A secondary g -band light-curve peak could indicate interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material (CSM). An H α -emitting source at the explosion site suggests a residual local star formation origin. SN 2018fsh and SN 2020uik are SNe II which exploded in the outskirts of elliptical galaxies. SN 2020uik shows typical spectra for SNe II, while SN 2018fsh shows a boxy nebular H α profile, a signature of CSM interaction. We combine these 3 SNe with 7 events from the literature and analyze their hosts as a sample. We present multi-wavelength photometry of the hosts, and compare this to archival photometry of all BTS hosts. Using the spectroscopically complete BTS, we conclude that 0.3 % − 0.1 + 0.3 of all CCSNe occur in elliptical galaxies. We derive star formation rates and stellar masses for the host galaxies and compare them to the properties of other SNmore »hosts. We show that CCSNe in ellipticals have larger physical separations from their hosts compared to SNe Ia in elliptical galaxies, and discuss implications for star-forming activity in elliptical galaxies.« less
  4. The joint observation of core-collapse supernovae with gamma-ray bursts shows that jets can be launched in the aftermath of stellar core collapse, likely by a newly formed black hole that accretes matter from the star. Such gamma-ray bursts have only been observed accompanying Type Ibc supernovae, indicating a stellar progenitor that lost its hydrogen envelope before collapse. According to recent hypothesis, it is possible that jets are launched in core-collapse events even when the progenitors still retain their hydrogen envelopes; however, such jets are not able to burrow through the star and will be stalled into the interior of the progenitor star before escaping. These jets are called choked jets. High-energy neutrinos produced by such choked jets could escape the stellar envelope and could be observed. Here, we examine how multimessenger searches for high-energy neutrinos and core-collapse supernovae can detect or limit the fraction of stellar collapses that produce jets. We find that a high fraction of jet production is already limited by previous observational campaigns. We explore possibilities with future observations using Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, IceCube, and Km3NET.
  5. ABSTRACT We present early-time (t < +50 d) observations of SN 2019muj (=ASASSN-19tr), one of the best-observed members of the peculiar SN Iax class. Ultraviolet and optical photometric and optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up started from ∼5 d before maximum light [tmax(B) on $58707.8$ MJD] and covers the photospheric phase. The early observations allow us to estimate the physical properties of the ejecta and characterize the possible divergence from a uniform chemical abundance structure. The estimated bolometric light-curve peaks at 1.05 × 1042 erg s−1 and indicates that only 0.031 M⊙ of 56Ni was produced, making SN 2019muj a moderate luminosity object in the Iax class with peak absolute magnitude of $M_\rm {V} = -16.4$ mag. The estimated date of explosion is t0 = $58698.2$ MJD and implies a short rise time of trise = 9.6 d in B band. We fit of the spectroscopic data by synthetic spectra, calculated via the radiative transfer code tardis. Adopting the partially stratified abundance template based on brighter SNe Iax provides a good match with SN 2019muj. However, without earlier spectra, the need for stratification cannot be stated in most of the elements, except carbon, which is allowed to appear in the outer layers only. SN 2019muj provides amore »unique opportunity to link extremely low-luminosity SNe Iax to well-studied, brighter SNe Iax.« less