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  1. Today‚Äôs Deep Neural Network (DNN) inference systems contain hundreds of billions of parameters, resulting in significant latency and energy overheads during inference due to frequent data transfers between compute and memory units. Processing-in-Memory (PiM) has emerged as a viable solution to tackle this problem by avoiding the expensive data movement. PiM approaches based on electrical devices suffer from throughput and energy efficiency issues. In contrast, Optically-addressed Phase Change Memory (OPCM) operates with light and achieves much higher throughput and energy efficiency compared to its electrical counterparts. This paper introduces a system-level design that takes the OPCM programming overhead into consideration, and identifies that the programming cost dominates the DNN inference on OPCM-based PiM architectures. We explore the design space of this system and identify the most energy-efficient OPCM array size and batch size. We propose a novel thresholding and reordering technique on the weight blocks to further reduce the programming overhead. Combining these optimizations, our approach achieves up to 65.2x higher throughput than existing photonic accelerators for practical DNN workloads. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 7, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
    Heterogeneous systems are commonly used today to sustain the historic benefits we have achieved through technology scaling. 2.5D integration technology provides a cost-effective solution for designing heterogeneous systems. The traditional physical design of a 2.5D heterogeneous system closely packs the chiplets to minimize wirelength, but this leads to a thermally-inefficient design. We propose TAP-2.5D: the first open-source network routing and thermally-aware chiplet placement methodology for heterogeneous 2.5D systems. TAP-2.5D strategically inserts spacing between chiplets to jointly minimize the temperature and total wirelength, and in turn, increases the thermal design power envelope of the overall system. We present three case studies demonstrating the usage and efficacy of TAP-2.5D. 
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