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  1. Abstract

    We investigate the use of bright single pulses from the Crab pulsar to determine separately the dispersion measure (DM) for the Main Pulse and Interpulse components. We develop two approaches using cross-correlation functions (CCFs). The first method computes the CCF of the total intensity of each of the 64 frequency channels with a reference channel and converts the time lag of maximum correlation into a DM. The second method separately computes the CCF between every pair of channels for each individual bright pulse and extracts an average DM from the distribution of all channel-pair DMs. Both methods allow the determination of the DM with a relative uncertainty of better than 10−5and provide robust estimates for the uncertainty of the best-fit value. We find differences in DM between the Main Pulse, the Low Frequency Interpulse, and the High Frequency Interpulse using both methods in a frequency range from 4 to 6 GHz. Earlier observations of the High Frequency Interpulse carried out by Hankins et al. (2016) resulted in DMHFIP–DMMPof 0.010 ± 0.016 pc cm−3. Our results indicate a DMHFIP–DMMPof 0.0127 ± 0.0011 pc cm−3(with DMcompbeing the DM value of the respective emission component), confirming earlier results with an independent method.more »During our studies we also find a relation between the brightness of single pulses in the High Frequency Interpulse and their DM. We also discuss the application of the developed methods on the identification of substructures in the case of Fast Radio Bursts.

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  2. Abstract In this work, we present polarization profiles for 23 millisecond pulsars observed at 820 and 1500 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope as part of the NANOGrav pulsar timing array. We calibrate the data using Mueller matrix solutions calculated from observations of PSRs B1929+10 and J1022+1001. We discuss the polarization profiles, which can be used to constrain pulsar emission geometry, and present both the first published radio polarization profiles for nine pulsars and the discovery of very low-intensity average profile components (“microcomponents”) in four pulsars. We obtain the Faraday rotation measures for each pulsar and use them to calculate the Galactic magnetic field parallel to the line of sight for different lines of sight through the interstellar medium. We fit for linear and sinusoidal trends in time in the dispersion measure and Galactic magnetic field and detect magnetic field variations with a period of 1 yr in some pulsars, but overall find that the variations in these parameters are more consistent with a stochastic origin.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Abstract The Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey is a 350 MHz all-sky survey for pulsars and fast radio transients using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. To date, the survey has discovered over 190 pulsars, including 33 millisecond pulsars and 24 rotating radio transients. Several exotic pulsars have been discovered in the survey, including PSR J1759+5036, a binary pulsar with a 176 ms spin period in an orbit with a period of 2.04 days, an eccentricity of 0.3, and a projected semi-major axis of 6.8 light seconds. Using seven years of timing data, we are able to measure one post–Keplerian parameter, advance of periastron, which has allowed us to constrain the total system mass to 2.62 ± 0.03 M ⊙ . This constraint, along with the spin period and orbital parameters, suggests that this is a double neutron star system, although we cannot entirely rule out a pulsar-white dwarf binary. This pulsar is only detectable in roughly 45% of observations, most likely due to scintillation. However, additional observations are required to determine whether there may be other contributing effects.
  4. Abstract With the Expanded Long Wavelength Array (ELWA) and pulsar binning techniques, we searched for off-pulse emission from PSR B0950+08 at 76 MHz. Previous studies suggest that off-pulse emission can be due to pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) in younger pulsars. Other studies, such as that done by Basu et al. (2012), propose that in older pulsars this emission extends to some radius that is on the order of the light cylinder radius, and is magnetospheric in origin. Through imaging analysis we conclude that this older pulsar with a spin-down age of 17 Myr has a surrounding PWN, which is unexpected since as a pulsar ages its PWN spectrum is thought to shift from being synchrotron to inverse-Compton-scattering dominated. At 76 MHz, the average flux density of the off-pulse emission is 0.59 ± 0.16 Jy. The off-pulse emission from B0950+08 is ∼ 110 ± 17 arcseconds (0.14 ± 0.02 pc) in size, extending well-beyond the light cylinder diameter and ruling out a magnetospheric origin. Using data from our observation and the surveys VLSSr, TGSS, NVSS, FIRST, and VLASS, we have found that the spectral index for B0950+08 is about −1.36 ± 0.20, while the PWN’s spectral index is steeper than −1.85 ± 0.45.