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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  3. Abstract The CMS Inner Tracker, made of silicon pixel modules, will be entirely replaced prior to the start of the High Luminosity LHC period. One of the crucial components of the new Inner Tracker system is the readout chip, being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, and in particular its analogue front-end, which receives the signal from the sensor and digitizes it. Three different analogue front-ends (Synchronous, Linear, and Differential) were designed and implemented in the RD53A demonstrator chip. A dedicated evaluation program was carried out to select the most suitable design to build a radiation tolerant pixel detector able tomore »sustain high particle rates with high efficiency and a small fraction of spurious pixel hits. The test results showed that all three analogue front-ends presented strong points, but also limitations. The Differential front-end demonstrated very low noise, but the threshold tuning became problematic after irradiation. Moreover, a saturation in the preamplifier feedback loop affected the return of the signal to baseline and thus increased the dead time. The Synchronous front-end showed very good timing performance, but also higher noise. For the Linear front-end all of the parameters were within specification, although this design had the largest time walk. This limitation was addressed and mitigated in an improved design. The analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the three front-ends in the context of the CMS Inner Tracker operation requirements led to the selection of the improved design Linear front-end for integration in the final CMS readout chip.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Abstract During the operation of the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC the silicon sensors of the Phase-2 Outer Tracker will be exposed to radiation levels that could potentially deteriorate their performance. Previous studies had determined that planar float zone silicon with n-doped strips on a p-doped substrate was preferred over p-doped strips on an n-doped substrate. The last step in evaluating the optimal design for the mass production of about 200 m 2 of silicon sensors was to compare sensors of baseline thickness (about 300 μm) to thinned sensors (about 240 μm), which promised several benefits at high radiationmore »levels because of the higher electric fields at the same bias voltage. This study provides a direct comparison of these two thicknesses in terms of sensor characteristics as well as charge collection and hit efficiency for fluences up to 1.5 × 10 15 n eq /cm 2 . The measurement results demonstrate that sensors with about 300 μm thickness will ensure excellent tracking performance even at the highest considered fluence levels expected for the Phase-2 Outer Tracker.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
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  8. Abstract The coherent photoproduction of $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ and $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ mesons was measured in ultra-peripheral Pb–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}~=~5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV  with the ALICE detector. Charmonia are detected in the central rapidity region for events where the hadronic interactions are strongly suppressed. The $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ is reconstructed using the dilepton ( $$l^{+} l^{-}$$ l + l - ) and proton–antiproton decay channels, while for the $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′   the dilepton and the $$l^{+} l^{-} \pi ^{+} \pi ^{-}$$ l + l - πmore »+ π - decay channels are studied. The analysis is based on an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 233 $$\mu {\mathrm{b}}^{-1}$$ μ b - 1 . The results are compared with theoretical models for coherent $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ and $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ photoproduction. The coherent cross section is found to be in a good agreement with models incorporating moderate nuclear gluon shadowing of about 0.64 at a Bjorken- x of around $$6\times 10^{-4}$$ 6 × 10 - 4 , such as the EPS09 parametrization, however none of the models is able to fully describe the rapidity dependence of the coherent $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ cross section including ALICE measurements at forward rapidity. The ratio of $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ to $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ coherent photoproduction cross sections was also measured and found to be consistent with the one for photoproduction off protons.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  10. Abstract The production of $$\phi $$ ϕ mesons has been studied in pp collisions at LHC energies with the ALICE detector via the dimuon decay channel in the rapidity region $$2.5< y < 4$$ 2.5 < y < 4 . Measurements of the differential cross section $$\mathrm{d}^2\sigma /\mathrm{d}y \mathrm{d}p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ d 2 σ / d y d p T are presented as a function of the transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T ) at the center-of-mass energies $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$ s = 5.02 , 8 and 13 TeV and compared with the ALICE results at midrapidity. The differential cross sections at $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$more »s = 5.02 and 13 TeV are also studied in several rapidity intervals as a function of $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T , and as a function of rapidity in three $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T intervals. A hardening of the $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T -differential cross section with the collision energy is observed, while, for a given energy, $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T spectra soften with increasing rapidity and, conversely, rapidity distributions get slightly narrower at increasing $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T . The new results, complementing the published measurements at $$\sqrt{s}=2.76$$ s = 2.76 and 7 TeV, allow one to establish the energy dependence of $$\phi $$ ϕ meson production and to compare the measured cross sections with phenomenological models. None of the considered models manages to describe the evolution of the cross section with $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T and rapidity at all the energies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022