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  1. Marine polymer gels play a critical role in regulating ocean basin scale biogeochemical dynamics. This brief review introduces the crucial role of marine gels as a source of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in cloud formation processes, emphasizing Arctic marine microgels. We review the gel’s composition and relation to aerosols, their emergent properties, and physico-chemical processes that explain their change in size spectra, specifically in relation to aerosols and CCN. Understanding organic aerosols and CCN in this context provides clear benefits to quantifying the role of marine nanogel/microgel in microphysical processes leading to cloud formation. This review emphasizes the DOC-marine gel/aerosolized gel-cloud link, critical to developing accurate climate models.
  2. Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) holds ~660 billion metric tons of carbon, making it one of Earth’s major carbon reservoirs that is exchangeable with the atmosphere on annual to millennial time scales. The global ocean scale dynamics of the pool have become better illuminated over the past few decades, and those are very briefly described here. What is still far from understood is the dynamical control on this pool at the molecular level; in the case of this Special Issue, the role of microgels is poorly known. This manuscript provides the global context of a large pool of marine DOM upon which those missing insights can be built.
  3. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize intracellular magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals surrounded by a magnetosome membrane (MM). The MM contains membrane-specific proteins that control Fe3O4 mineralization in MTB. Previous studies have demonstrated that Mms13 is a critical protein within the MM. Mms13 can be isolated from the MM fraction of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 and a Mms13 homolog, MamC, has been shown to control the size and shape of magnetite nanocrystals synthesized in-vitro. The objective of this study was to use several independent methods to definitively determine the localization of native Mms13 in M. magneticum AMB-1. Using Mms13-immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found that Mms13 is localized to the magnetosome chain of M. magneticum AMB-1 cells. Mms13 was detected in direct contact with magnetite crystals or within the MM. Immunofluorescence detection of Mms13 in M. magneticum AMB-1 cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed Mms13 localization along the length of the magnetosome chain. Proteins contained within the MM were resolved by SDS-PAGE for Western blot analysis and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) protein sequencing. Using Anti-Mms13 antibody, a protein band with a molecular mass of ~14 kDa was detected in the MM fraction only. This polypeptide was digestedmore »with trypsin, sequenced by LC-MS/MS and identified as magnetosome protein Mms13. Peptides corresponding to the protein’s putative MM domain and catalytic domain were both identified by LC-MS/MS. Our results (Immunogold TEM, Immunofluorescence CLSM, Western blot, LC-MS/MS), combined with results from previous studies, demonstrate that Mms13 and homolog proteins MamC and Mam12, are localized to the magnetosome chain in MTB belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria. Because of their shared localization in the MM and highly conserved amino acid sequences, it is likely that MamC, Mam12, and Mms13 share similar roles in the biomineralization of Fe3O4 nanocrystals.« less
  4. Late blight (LB) of potato is considered one of the most devastating plant diseases in the world. Most cultivated potatoes are susceptible to this disease. However, wild relatives of potatoes are an excellent source of LB resistance. We screened 384 accessions of 72 different wild potato species available from the U.S. Potato GeneBank against the LB pathogen Phytophthora infestans in a detached leaf assay (DLA). P. infestans isolates US-23 and NL13316 were used in the DLA to screen the accessions. Although all plants in 273 accessions were susceptible, all screened plants in 39 accessions were resistant. Resistant and susceptible plants were found in 33 accessions. All tested plants showed a partial resistance phenotype in two accessions, segregation of resistant and partial resistant plants in nine accessions, segregation of partially resistant and susceptible plants in four accessions, and segregation of resistant, partially resistant, and susceptible individuals in 24 accessions. We found several species that were never before reported to be resistant to LB: Solanum albornozii, S. agrimoniifolium, S. chomatophilum, S. ehrenbergii, S. hypacrarthrum, S. iopetalum, S. palustre, S. piurae, S. morelliforme, S. neocardenasii, S. trifidum, and S. stipuloideum. These new species could provide novel sources of LB resistance. P. infestans clonalmore »lineage-specific screening of selected species was conducted to identify the presence of RB resistance. We found LB resistant accessions in Solanum verrucosum, Solanum stoloniferum, and S. morelliforme that were susceptible to the RB overcoming isolate NL13316, indicating the presence of RB-like resistance in these species.« less
  5. About 20% of the organic carbon produced in the sunlit surface ocean is transported into the ocean’s interior as dissolved, suspended and sinking particles to be mineralized and sequestered as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), sedimentary particulate organic carbon (POC) or “refractory” dissolved organic carbon (rDOC). Recently, the physical and biological mechanisms associated with the particle pumps have been revisited, suggesting that accepted fluxes might be severely underestimated ( Boyd et al., 2019 ; Buesseler et al., 2020 ). Perhaps even more poorly understood are the mechanisms driving rDOC production and its potential accumulation in the ocean. On the basis of recent conflicting evidence about the relevance of DOC degradation in the deep ocean, we revisit the concept of rDOC in terms of its “refractory” nature in order to understand its role in the global carbon cycle. Here, we address the problem of various definitions and approaches used to characterize rDOC (such as turnover time in relation to the ocean transit time, molecule abundance, chemical composition and structure). We propose that rDOC should be operationally defined. However, we recognize there are multiple ways to operationally define rDOC; thus the main focus for unifying future studies should be to explicitly state howmore »rDOC is being defined and the analytical window used for measuring rDOC, rather than adhering to a single operational definition. We also conclude, based on recent evidence, that the persistence of rDOC is fundamentally dependent on both intrinsic (chemical composition and structure, e.g., molecular properties), and extrinsic properties (amount or external factors, e.g., molecular concentrations, ecosystem properties). Finally, we suggest specific research questions aimed at stimulating research on the nature, dynamics, and role of rDOC in Carbon sequestration now and in future scenarios of climate change.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2023
  7. Cave animals are a fascinating group of species often demonstrating characteristics including reduced eyes and pigmentation, metabolic efficiency, and enhanced sensory systems. Asellus aquaticus, an isopod crustacean, is an emerging model for cave biology. Cave and surface forms of this species differ in many characteristics, including eye size, pigmentation, and antennal length. Existing resources for this species include a linkage map, mapped regions responsible for eye and pigmentation traits, sequenced adult transcriptomes, and comparative embryological descriptions of the surface and cave forms. Our ultimate goal is to identify genes and mutations responsible for the differences between the cave and surface forms. To advance this goal, we decided to use a transcriptomic approach. Because many of these changes first appear during embryonic development, we sequenced embryonic transcriptomes of cave, surface, and hybrid individuals at the stage when eyes and pigment become evident in the surface form. We generated a cave, a surface, a hybrid, and an integrated transcriptome to identify differentially expressed genes in the cave and surface forms. Additionally, we identified genes with allele-specific expression in hybrid individuals. These embryonic transcriptomes are an important resource to assist in our ultimate goal of determining the genetic underpinnings of the divergence betweenmore »the cave and surface forms.« less