skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Desai, Ankur R."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Extratropical cyclones develop in regions of enhanced baroclinicity and progress along climatological storm tracks. Numerous studies have noted an influence of terrestrial snow cover on atmospheric baroclinicity. However, these studies have less typically examined the role that continental snow cover extent and changes anticipated with anthropogenic climate change have on cyclones’ intensities, trajectories, and precipitation characteristics. Here, we examined how projected future poleward shifts in North American snow extent influence extratropical cyclones. We imposed 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile values of snow retreat between the late 20th and 21st centuries as projected by 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five (CMIP5) models to alter snow extent underlying 15 historical cold-season cyclones that tracked over the North American Great Plains and were faithfully reproduced in control model cases, providing a comprehensive set of model runs to evaluate hypotheses. Simulations by the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF-ARW) were initialized at four days prior to cyclogenesis. Cyclone trajectories moved on average poleward (μ = 27 +/− σ = 17 km) in response to reduced snow extent while the maximum sea-level pressure deepened (μ = −0.48 +/− σ = 0.8 hPa) with greater snow removed. A significant linear correlation was observed between the area of snow removed and mean trajectory deviation (r2 = 0.23), especially in mid-winter (r2 = 0.59), as well as a similar relationship for maximum change in sea-level pressure (r2 = 0.17). Across all simulations, 82% of the perturbed simulation cyclones decreased in average central sea-level pressure (SLP) compared to the corresponding control simulation. Near-surface wind speed increased, as did precipitation, in 86% of cases with a preferred phase change from the solid to liquid state due to warming, although the trends did not correlate with the snow retreat magnitude. Our results, consistent with prior studies noting some role for the enhanced baroclinity of the snow line in modulating storm track and intensity, provide a benchmark to evaluate future snow cover retreat impacts on mid-latitude weather systems. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Key Points The NEON sites were estimated to have large soil organic carbon (SOC) loss in both topsoil and subsoil during 1984–2014 The carbon sequestration potential is limited in well‐developed and near carbon‐saturated soils in managed ecosystems Runoff/erosion and leaching, vertical translocation, and mineral sorption are dominant factors affecting SOC variation at National Ecological Observatory Network sites 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Understanding the controlling mechanisms of soil properties on ecosystem productivity is essential for sustaining productivity and increasing resilience under a changing climate. Here we investigate the control of topsoil depth (e.g., A horizons) on long‐term ecosystem productivity. We used nationwide observations (n = 2401) of topsoil depth and multiple scaled datasets of gross primary productivity (GPP) for five ecosystems (cropland, forest, grassland, pasture, shrubland) over 36 years (1986–2021) across the conterminous USA. The relationship between topsoil depth and GPP is primarily associated with water availability, which is particularly significant in arid regions under grassland, shrubland, and cropland (r = .37, .32, .15, respectively,p < .0001). For every 10 cm increase in topsoil depth, the GPP increased by 114 to 128 g C m−2 year−1in arid regions (r = .33 and .45,p < .0001). Paired comparison of relatively shallow and deep topsoils while holding other variables (climate, vegetation, parent material, soil type) constant showed that the positive control of topsoil depth on GPP occurred primarily in cropland (0.73, confidence interval of 0.57–0.84) and shrubland (0.75, confidence interval of 0.40–0.94). The GPP difference between deep and shallow topsoils was small and not statistically significant. Despite the positive control of topsoil depth on productivity in arid regions, its contribution (coefficients: .09–.33) was similar to that of heat (coefficients: .06–.39) but less than that of water (coefficients: .07–.87). The resilience of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes varied in different ecosystems and climatic regions. Deeper topsoils increased stability and decreased the variability of GPP under climate extremes in most ecosystems, especially in shrubland and grassland. The conservation of topsoil in arid regions and improvements of soil depth representation and moisture‐retention mechanisms are critical for carbon‐sequestration ecosystem services under a changing climate. These findings and relationships should also be included in Earth system models.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract. The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important process that controls both chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere with implications for air quality and climate change. The terrestrial biosphere is a major source of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that govern atmospheric concentrations of the hydroxy radical (OH) and ozone (O3) and control the formation andgrowth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Common simulations of BVOCsurface–atmosphere exchange in chemical transport models use parameterizations derived from the growing season and do not considerpotential changes in emissions during seasonal transitions. Here, we useobservations of BVOCs over a mixed temperate forest in northern Wisconsinduring broadleaf senescence to better understand the effects of the seasonal changes in canopy conditions (e.g., temperature, sunlight, leaf area, and leaf stage) on net BVOC exchange. The BVOCs investigated here include the terpenoids isoprene (C5H8), monoterpenes (MTs; C10H16), a monoterpene oxide (C10H16O), and sesquiterpenes (SQTs; C15H24), as well as a subset of other monoterpene oxides and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). During this period, MTs were primarily composed of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphene, with α-pinene and camphene dominant during the first half of September and β-pinene thereafter. We observed enhanced MT and monoterpene oxide emissions following the onset of leaf senescence and suggest that senescence has the potential to be a significant control on late-season MT emissions in this ecosystem. We show that common parameterizations of BVOC emissions cannot reproduce the fluxes of MT, C10H16O, and SQT during the onset and continuation of senescence but can correctly simulate isoprene flux. We also describe the impact of the MT emission enhancement on the potential to form highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs). The calculated production rates of HOMs and H2SO4, constrained by terpene and DMS concentrations, suggest that biogenic aerosol formation and growth in this region should be dominated by secondary organics rather than sulfate. Further, we show that models using parameterized MT emissions likely underestimate HOM production, and thus aerosol growth and formation, during early autumn in this region. Further measurements of forest–atmosphere BVOC exchange during seasonal transitions as well as measurements of DMS in temperate regions are needed to effectively predict the effects of canopy changes on reactive carbon cycling and aerosol production. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract The physical processes of heat exchange between lakes and the surrounding atmosphere are important in simulating and predicting terrestrial surface energy balance. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are the dominant physical process controlling ice growth and decay on the lake surface, as well as having influence on regional climate. While one-dimensional lake models have been used in simulating environmental changes in ice dynamics and water temperature, understanding the seasonal to daily cycles of lake surface energy balance and its relationship to lake thermal properties, atmospheric conditions, and how those are represented in models is still an open area of research. We evaluated a pair of one-dimensional lake models, Freshwater Lake (FLake) and the General Lake Model (GLM), to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes against observed data collected by an eddy covariance tower during a 1-yr period in 2017, using Lake Mendota in Madison, Wisconsin, as our study site. We hypothesized transitional periods of ice cover as a leading source of model uncertainty, and we instead found that the models failed to simulate accurate values for large positive heat fluxes that occurred from late August into late December. Our results ultimately showed that one-dimensional models are effective in simulating sensible heat fluxes but are considerably less sensitive to latent heat fluxes than the observed relationships of latent heat flux to environmental drivers. These results can be used to focus future improvement of these lake models especially if they are to be used for surface boundary conditions in regional numerical weather models. Significance Statement While lakes consist of a small amount of Earth’s surface, they have a large impact on local climate and weather. A large amount of energy is stored in lakes during the spring and summer, and then removed from lakes before winter. The effect is particularly noticeable in high latitudes, when the seasonal temperature difference is larger. Modeling this lake energy exchange is important for weather models and measuring this energy exchange is challenging. Here we compare modeled and observed energy exchange, and we show there are large amounts of energy exchange happening in the fall, which models struggle to capture well. During periods of partial ice coverage in early winter, lake behavior can change rapidly. 
    more » « less
  6. Córdoba Province in Argentina is a global hotspot for deep hail-producing storms. Previous studies of hail formation and detection largely relied on satellite snapshots or modeling studies, but lacked hail validation, relying instead on proxy metrics. To address this limitation, this study used hail collected in the mountainous Córdoba region in collaboration with the citizen science program “Cosecheros de Granizo 2018–2020” including from a record-breaking hail event and from the 2018–2019 RELAMPAGO field campaign. Three cases including a MCS and two supercells, which have verified hail in different environment locations relative to the Sierras de Córdoba, were analyzed for multi-spectral signatures in GOES-16 satellite data. Brightness temperatures decreased over time after convective initiation, reaching values cooler than the tropopause with variations around those values of different magnitudes. Overall, all cases exhibited a slight weakening of the updraft and strong presence of smaller ice crystal sizes just prior to the hail report, especially for the larger hailstones. The results demonstrate promise in using satellite proxies for hail detection in multiple environments for different storm modes. The long-term goal is to better understand hail-producing storms and unique challenges of forecasting hail in this region. 
    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    Climate change is intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering ecosystem function, including water flux to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). ET is made up of evaporation (E) via non‐stomatal surfaces, and transpiration (T) through plant stomata which are impacted by global changes in different ways. E and T are difficult to measure independently at the ecosystem scale, especially across multiple sites that represent different land use and land management strategies. To address this gap in understanding, we applied flux variance similarity (FVS) to quantify how E and T differ across 13 different ecosystems measured using eddy covariance in a 10 × 10 km area from the CHEESEHEAD19 experiment in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites included eight forests with a large deciduous broadleaf component, three evergreen needleleaf forests, and two wetlands. Average T/ET for the study period averaged nearly 52% in forested sites and 45% in wetlands, with larger values after excluding periods following rain events when evaporation from canopy interception may be expected. A dominance analysis revealed that environmental variables explained on average 69% of the variance of half‐hourly T, which decreased from summer to autumn. Deciduous and evergreen forests showed similar E trajectories over time despite differences in vegetation phenology, and vapor pressure deficit explained some 13% of the variance E in wetlands but only 5% or less in forests. Retrieval of E and T within a dense network of flux towers lends confidence that FVS is a promising approach for comparing ecosystem hydrology across multiple sites to improve our process‐based understanding of ecosystem water fluxes.

     
    more » « less