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  1. Entanglement is one of the physical properties of quantum systems responsible for the computational hardness of simulating quantum systems. But while the runtime of specific algorithms, notably tensor network algorithms, explicitly depends on the amount of entanglement in the system, it is unknown whether this connection runs deeper and entanglement can also cause inherent, algorithm-independent complexity. In this Letter, we quantitatively connect the entanglement present in certain quantum systems to the computational complexity of simulating those systems. Moreover, we completely characterize the entanglement and complexity as a function of a system parameter. Specifically, we consider the task of simulating single-qubit measurements of k-regular graph states on n qubits. We show that, as the regularity parameter is increased from 1 to n−1, there is a sharp transition from an easy regime with low entanglement to a hard regime with high entanglement at k = 3, and a transition back to easy and low entanglement at k = n−3. As a key technical result, we prove a duality for the simulation complexity of regular graph states between low and high regularity. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2024
  2. Bosonic Gaussian states are a special class of quantum states in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space that are relevant to universal continuous-variable quantum computation as well as to near-term quantum sampling tasks such as Gaussian Boson Sampling. In this work, we study entanglement within a set of squeezed modes that have been evolved by a random linear optical unitary. We first derive formulas that are asymptotically exact in the number of modes for the Rényi-2 Page curve (the average Rényi-2 entropy of a subsystem of a pure bosonic Gaussian state) and the corresponding Page correction (the average information of the subsystem) in certain squeezing regimes. We then prove various results on the typicality of entanglement as measured by the Rényi-2 entropy by studying its variance. Using the aforementioned results for the Rényi-2 entropy, we upper and lower bound the von Neumann entropy Page curve and prove certain regimes of entanglement typicality as measured by the von Neumann entropy. Our main proofs make use of a symmetry property obeyed by the average and the variance of the entropy that dramatically simplifies the averaging over unitaries. In this light, we propose future research directions where this symmetry might also be exploited. We conclude by discussing potential applications of our results and their generalizations to Gaussian Boson Sampling and to illuminating the relationship between entanglement and computational complexity.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2024
  3. The permanent is pivotal to both complexity theory and combinatorics. In quantum computing, the permanent appears in the expression of output amplitudes of linear optical computations, such as in the Boson Sampling model. Taking advantage of this connection, we give quantum-inspired proofs of many existing as well as new remarkable permanent identities. Most notably, we give a quantum-inspired proof of the MacMahon master theorem as well as proofs for new generalizations of this theorem. Previous proofs of this theorem used completely different ideas. Beyond their purely combinatorial applications, our results demonstrate the classical hardness of exact and approximate sampling of linear optical quantum computations with input cat states. 
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  4. We study the properties of output distributions of noisy random circuits. We obtain upper and lower bounds on the expected distance of the output distribution from the “useless” uniform distribution. These bounds are tight with respect to the dependence on circuit depth. Our proof techniques also allow us to make statements about the presence or absence of anticoncentration for both noisy and noiseless circuits. We uncover a number of interesting consequences for hardness proofs of sampling schemes that aim to show a quantum computational advantage over classical computation. Specifically, we discuss recent barrier results for depth-agnostic and/or noise-agnostic proof techniques. We show that in certain depth regimes, noise-agnostic proof techniques might still work in order to prove an often-conjectured claim in the literature on quantum computational advantage, contrary to what has been thought prior to this work. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Quantum computers and simulators may offer significant advantages over their classical counterparts, providing insights into quantum many-body systems and possibly improving performance for solving exponentially hard problems, such as optimization and satisfiability. Here, we report the implementation of a low-depth Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) using an analog quantum simulator. We estimate the ground-state energy of the Transverse Field Ising Model with long-range interactions with tunable range, and we optimize the corresponding combinatorial classical problem by sampling the QAOA output with high-fidelity, single-shot, individual qubit measurements. We execute the algorithm with both an exhaustive search and closed-loop optimization of the variational parameters, approximating the ground-state energy with up to 40 trapped-ion qubits. We benchmark the experiment with bootstrapping heuristic methods scaling polynomially with the system size. We observe, in agreement with numerics, that the QAOA performance does not degrade significantly as we scale up the system size and that the runtime is approximately independent from the number of qubits. We finally give a comprehensive analysis of the errors occurring in our system, a crucial step in the path forward toward the application of the QAOA to more general problem instances. 
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