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  1. Garbage collection (GC) support for unmanaged languages can reduce programming burden in reasoning about liveness of dynamic objects. It also avoids temporal memory safety violations and memory leaks.SoundGC for weakly-typed languages such as C/C++, however, remains an unsolved problem. Current value-based GC solutions examine values of memory locations to discover the pointers, and the objects they point to. The approach is inherently unsound in the presence of arbitrary type casts and pointer manipulations, which are legal in C/C++. Such language features are regularly used, especially in low-level systems code.

    In this paper, we propose Dynamic Pointer Provenance Tracking to realize sound GC. We observe that pointers cannot be created out-of-thin-air, and they must have provenance to at least one valid allocation. Therefore, by tracking pointer provenance from the source (e.g., malloc) through both explicit data-flow and implicit control-flow, our GC has sound and precise information to compute the set of all reachable objects at any program state. We discuss several static analysis optimizations, that can be employed during compilation aided with profiling, to significantly reduce the overhead of dynamic provenance tracking from nearly 8× to 16% for well-behaved programs that adhere to the C standards. Pointer provenance based sound GC invocation is also 13% faster and reclaims 6% more memory on average, compared to an unsound value-based GC.

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  2. Dynamic information-flow tracking (DIFT) is useful for enforcing security policies, but rarely used in practice, as it can slow down a program by an order of magnitude. Static program analyses can be used to prove safe execution states and elide unnecessary DIFT monitors, but the performance improvement from these analyses is limited by their need to maintain soundness. In this paper, we present a novel optimistic hybrid analysis (OHA) to significantly reduce DIFT overhead while still guaranteeing sound results. It consists of a predicated whole-program static taint analysis, which assumes likely invariants gathered from profiles to dramatically improve precision. The optimized DIFT is sound for executions in which those invariants hold true, and recovers to a conservative DIFT for executions in which those invariants are false. We show how to overcome the main problem with using OHA to optimize live executions, which is the possibility of unbounded rollbacks. We eliminate the need for any rollback during recovery by tailoring our predicated static analysis to eliminate only safe elisions of noop monitors. Our tool, Iodine, reduces the overhead of DIFT for enforcing security policies to 9%, which is 4.4x lower than that with traditional hybrid analysis, while still being able to be run on live systems. 
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