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  1. Abstract

    Populus tremuloidesis the widest‐ranging tree species in North America and an ecologically important component of mesic forest ecosystems displaced by the Pleistocene glaciations. Using phylogeographic analyses of genome‐wide SNPs (34,796 SNPs, 183 individuals) and ecological niche modeling, we inferred population structure, ploidy levels, admixture, and Pleistocene range dynamics ofP. tremuloides, and tested several historical biogeographical hypotheses. We found three genetic lineages located mainly in coastal–Cascades (cluster 1), east‐slope Cascades–Sierra Nevadas–Northern Rockies (cluster 2), and U.S. Rocky Mountains through southern Canadian (cluster 3) regions of theP. tremuloidesrange, with tree graph relationships of the form ((cluster 1, cluster 2), cluster 3). Populations consisted mainly of diploids (86%) but also small numbers of triploids (12%) and tetraploids (1%), and ploidy did not adversely affect our genetic inferences. The main vector of admixture was from cluster 3 into cluster 2, with the admixture zone trending northwest through the Rocky Mountains along a recognized phenotypic cline (Utah to Idaho). Clusters 1 and 2 provided strong support for the “stable‐edge hypothesis” that unglaciated southwestern populations persisted in situ since the last glaciation. By contrast, despite a lack of clinal genetic variation, cluster 3 exhibited “trailing‐edge” dynamics from niche suitability predictions signifying complete northward postglacial expansion. Results were also consistent with the “inland dispersal hypothesis” predicting postglacial assembly of Pacific Northwestern forest ecosystems, but rejected the hypothesis that Pacific‐coastal populations were colonized during outburst flooding from glacial Lake Missoula. Overall, congruent patterns between our phylogeographic and ecological niche modeling results and fossil pollen data demonstrate complex mixtures of stable‐edge, refugial locations, and postglacial expansion withinP. tremuloides. These findings confirm and refine previous genetic studies, while strongly supporting a distinct Pacific‐coastal genetic lineage of quaking aspen.

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  2. Summary

    A network of environmental inputs and internal signaling controls plant growth, development and organ elongation. In particular, the growth‐promoting hormone gibberellin (GA) has been shown to play a significant role in organ elongation. The use of tomato as a model organism to study elongation presents an opportunity to study the genetic control of internode‐specific elongation in a eudicot species with a sympodial growth habit and substantial internodes that can and do respond to external stimuli. To investigate internode elongation, a mutant with an elongated hypocotyl and internodes but wild‐type petioles was identified through a forward genetic screen. In addition to stem‐specific elongation, this mutant, namedtomato internode elongated ‐1(tie‐1) is more sensitive to theGAbiosynthetic inhibitor paclobutrazol and has altered levels of intermediate and bioactiveGAs compared with wild‐type plants. The mutation responsible for the internode elongation phenotype was mapped toGA2oxidase 7, a classIII GA2‐oxidase in theGAbiosynthetic pathway, through a bulked segregant analysis and bioinformatic pipeline, and confirmed by transgenic complementation. Furthermore, bacterially expressed recombinantTIEprotein was shown to have bona fideGA2‐oxidase activity. These results define a critical role for this gene in internode elongation and are significant because they further the understanding of the role ofGAbiosynthetic genes in organ‐specific elongation.

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  3. Abstract

    Floral attraction traits can significantly affect pollinator visitation patterns, but adaptive evolution of these traits may be constrained by correlations with other traits. In some cases, molecular pathways contributing to floral attraction are well characterized, offering the opportunity to explore loci potentially underlying variation among individuals. Here, we quantify the range of variation in floralUVpatterning (i.e.UV‘bulls‐eye nectar guides) among crop and wild accessions ofBrassica rapa. We then use experimental crosses to examine the genetic architecture, candidate loci and biochemical underpinnings of this patterning as well as phenotypic manipulations to test the ecological impact. We find qualitative variation inUVpatterning between wild (commonly lackingUVpatterns) and crop (commonly exhibitingUVpatterns) accessions. Similar to the majority of crops, recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an oilseed crop × WIfast‐plant®cross exhibitUVpatterns, the size of which varies extensively among genotypes. InRILs, we further observe strong statistical‐genetic andQTLcorrelations within petal morphological traits and within measurements of petalUVpatterning; however, correlations between morphology andUVpatterning are weak or nonsignificant, suggesting thatUVpatterning is regulated and may evolve independently of overall petal size.HPLCanalyses reveal a high concentration of sinapoyl glucose inUV‐absorbing petal regions, which, in concert with physical locations ofUV‐traitQTLs, suggest a regulatory and structural gene as candidates underlying observed quantitative variation. Finally, insects prefer flowers withUVbulls‐eye patterns over those that lack patterns, validating the importance ofUVpatterning in pollen‐limited populations ofB. rapa.

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