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Creators/Authors contains: "Dewangan, L. K."

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    To unravel the star formation process, we present a multi-scale and multi-wavelength study of the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G333.73 + 0.37, which hosts previously known two H ii regions located at its center. Each H ii region is associated with a mid-infrared source, and is excited by a massive OB star. Two filamentary structures and a hub-filament system (HFS) associated with one H ii region are investigated in absorption using the Spitzer 8.0 μm image. The 13CO(J = 2–1) and C18O(J = 2–1) line data reveal two velocity components (around −35.5 and −33.5 km s−1) toward the IRDC, favouring the presence of two filamentary clouds at different velocities. Non-thermal (or turbulent) motions are depicted in the IRDC using the C18O line data. The spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) identified using the VVV near-infrared data traces star formation activities in the IRDC. Low-mass cores are identified toward both the H ii regions using the ALMA 1.38 mm continuum map. The VLT/NACO adaptive-optics L′-band images show the presence of at least three point-like sources and the absence of small-scale features in the inner 4000 AU around YSOs NIR31 and MIR 16 located toward the H ii regions. The H ii regions and groups of YSO are observed toward the centralmore »part of the IRDC, where the two filamentary clouds intersect. A scenario of cloud–cloud collision or converging flows in the IRDC seems to be applicable, which may explain star formation activities including HFS and massive stars.

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    We investigate the presence of hub-filament systems in a large sample of 146 active proto-clusters, using H13CO+ J = 1-0 molecular line data obtained from the ATOMS survey. We find that filaments are ubiquitous in proto-clusters, and hub-filament systems are very common from dense core scales (∼0.1 pc) to clump/cloud scales (∼1–10 pc). The proportion of proto-clusters containing hub-filament systems decreases with increasing dust temperature (Td) and luminosity-to-mass ratios (L/M) of clumps, indicating that stellar feedback from H ii regions gradually destroys the hub-filament systems as proto-clusters evolve. Clear velocity gradients are seen along the longest filaments with a mean velocity gradient of 8.71 km s−1 pc−1 and a median velocity gradient of 5.54 km s−1 pc−1. We find that velocity gradients are small for filament lengths larger than ∼1 pc, probably hinting at the existence of inertial inflows, although we cannot determine whether the latter are driven by large-scale turbulence or large-scale gravitational contraction. In contrast, velocity gradients below ∼1 pc dramatically increase as filament lengths decrease, indicating that the gravity of the hubs or cores starts to dominate gas infall at small scales. We suggest that self-similar hub-filament systems and filamentary accretion at all scales may play a key role in high-mass star formation.