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  1. Zerboni, A (Ed.)
    The application of lidar remote-sensing technology has revolutionized the practice of settlement and landscape archaeology, perhaps nowhere more so than in the Maya lowlands. This contribution presents a substantial lidar dataset from the Puuc region of Yucatan, Mexico, a cultural subregion of the ancient Maya and a distinct physiographic zone within the Yucatan peninsula. Despite the high density of known sites, no large site has been fully surveyed, and little is known about intersite demography. Lidar technology allows determination of settlement distribution for the first time, showing that population was elevated but nucleated, although without any evidence of defensive features.more »Population estimates suggest a region among the most densely settled within the Maya lowlands, though hinterland levels are modest. Lacking natural bodies of surface water, the ancient Puuc inhabitants relied upon various storage technologies, primarily chultuns (cisterns) and aguadas (natural or modified reservoirs for potable water). Both are visible in the lidar imagery, allowing calculation of aguada capacities by means of GIS software. The imagery also demonstrates an intensive and widespread stone working industry. Ovens visible in the imagery were probably used for the production of lime, used for construction purposes and perhaps also as a softening agent for maize. Quarries can also be discerned, including in some cases substantial portions of entire hills. With respect to agriculture, terrain classification permits identification of patches of prime cultivable land and calculation of their extents. Lidar imagery also provides the first unequivocal evidence for terracing in the Puuc, indeed in all northern Yucatan. Finally, several types of civic architecture and architectural complexes are visible, including four large acropolises probably dating to the Middle Formative period (700–450 B. C.). Later instances of civic architecture include numerous Early Puuc Civic Complexes, suggesting a common form of civic organization at the beginning of the Late Classic demographic surge, (A.D. 600–750).« less
  2. We explore the possibilities enabled by the spatiotemporal modulation of graphene’s conductivity to realize magnetic-free isolators at terahertz and infrared frequencies. To this purpose, graphene is loaded with periodically distributed gates that are time-modulated. First, we investigate plasmonic isolators based on various mechanisms such as symmetric bandgaps and interband photonic transitions and we demonstrate isolation levels over 30 dB using realistic biasing schemes. To lessen the dependence on high-quality graphene able to support surface plasmons with low damping, we then introduce a hybrid photonic platform based on spatiotemporally modulated graphene coupled to high-Q modes propagating on dielectric waveguides. We exploitmore »transversal Fabry-Perot resonances appearing due to the finite-width of the waveguide to significantly boost graphene/waveguide interactions and to achieve isolation levels over 50 dB in compact structures modulated with low biasing voltages. The resulting platform is CMOS-compatible, exhibits an overall loss below 4 dB, and is robust against graphene imperfections. We also put forward a theoretical framework based on coupled-mode theory and on solving the eigenstates of the modulated structure that is in excellent agreement with full-wave numerical simulations, sheds light in the underlying physics that govern the proposed isolators, and speeds-up their analysis and design. We envision that the proposed technology will open new and efficient routes to realize integrated and silicon compatible isolators, with wide range of applications in communications and photonic networks.« less