skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Dibb, Jack E."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 21, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Snowpack emissions are recognized as an important source of gas‐phase reactive bromine in the Arctic and are necessary to explain ozone depletion events in spring caused by the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogen radicals. Quantifying bromine emissions from snowpack is essential for interpretation of ice‐core bromine. We present ice‐core bromine records since the pre‐industrial (1750 CE) from six Arctic locations and examine potential post‐depositional loss of snowpack bromine using a global chemical transport model. Trend analysis of the ice‐core records shows that only the high‐latitude coastal Akademii Nauk (AN) ice core from the Russian Arctic preserves significant trends since pre‐industrial times that are consistent with trends in sea ice extent and anthropogenic emissions from source regions. Model simulations suggest that recycling of reactive bromine on the snow skin layer (top 1 mm) results in 9–17% loss of deposited bromine across all six ice‐core locations. Reactive bromine production from below the snow skin layer and within the snow photic zone is potentially more important, but the magnitude of this source is uncertain. Model simulations suggest that the AN core is most likely to preserve an atmospheric signal compared to five Greenland ice cores due to its high latitude location combined with a relatively high snow accumulation rate. Understanding the sources and amount of photochemically reactive snow bromide in the snow photic zone throughout the sunlit period in the high Arctic is essential for interpreting ice‐core bromine, and warrants further lab studies and field observations at inland locations.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract. Fires emit sufficient sulfur to affect local and regional airquality and climate. This study analyzes SO2 emission factors andvariability in smoke plumes from US wildfires and agricultural fires, as well as theirrelationship to sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) formation.Observed SO2 emission factors for various fuel types show goodagreement with the latest reviews of biomass burning emission factors,producing an emission factor range of 0.47–1.2 g SO2 kg−1 C.These emission factors vary with geographic location in a way that suggeststhat deposition of coal burning emissions and application ofsulfur-containing fertilizers likely play a role in the larger observedvalues, which are primarily associated with agricultural burning. A 0-D boxmodel generally reproduces the observed trends of SO2 and total sulfate(inorganic + organic) in aging wildfire plumes. In many cases, modeled HMSis consistent with the observed organosulfur concentrations. However, acomparison of observed organosulfur and modeled HMS suggests that multipleorganosulfur compounds are likely responsible for the observations but thatthe chemistry of these compounds yields similar production and loss rates asthat of HMS, resulting in good agreement with the modeled results. Weprovide suggestions for constraining the organosulfur compounds observedduring these flights, and we show that the chemistry of HMS can alloworganosulfur to act as an S(IV) reservoir under conditions of pH > 6 and liquid water content>10−7 g sm−3. This canfacilitate long-range transport of sulfur emissions, resulting in increasedSO2 and eventually sulfate in transported smoke. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Agricultural and prescribed burning activities emit large amounts of trace gases and aerosols on regional to global scales. We present a compilation of emission factors (EFs) and emission ratios from the eastern portion of the Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX‐AQ) campaign in 2019 in the United States, which sampled burning of crop residues and other prescribed fire fuels. FIREX‐AQ provided comprehensive chemical characterization of 53 crop residue and 22 prescribed fires. Crop residues burned at different modified combustion efficiencies (MCE), with corn residue burning at higher MCE than other fuel types. Prescribed fires burned at lower MCE (<0.90) which is typical, while grasslands burned at lower MCE (0.90) than normally observed due to moist, green, growing season fuels. Most non‐methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were significantly anticorrelated with MCE except for ethanol and NMVOCs that were measured with less certainty. We identified 23 species where crop residue fires differed by more than 50% from prescribed fires at the same MCE. Crop residue EFs were greater for species related to agricultural chemical use and fuel composition as well as oxygenated NMVOCs possibly due to the presence of metals such as potassium. Prescribed EFs were greater for monoterpenes (5×). FIREX‐AQ crop residue average EFs generally agreed with the previous agricultural fire study in the US but had large disagreements with global compilations. FIREX‐AQ observations show the importance of regionally‐specific and fuel‐specific EFs as first steps to reduce uncertainty in modeling the air quality impacts of fire emissions.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Leveraging aerosol data from multiple airborne and surface‐based field campaigns encompassing diverse environmental conditions, we calculate statistics of the oxalate‐sulfate mass ratio (median: 0.0217; 95% confidence interval: 0.0154–0.0296;R = 0.76;N = 2,948). Ground‐based measurements of the oxalate‐sulfate ratio fall within our 95% confidence interval, suggesting the range is robust within the mixed layer for the submicrometer particle size range. We demonstrate that dust and biomass burning emissions can separately bias this ratio toward higher values by at least one order of magnitude. In the absence of these confounding factors, the 95% confidence interval of the ratio may be used to estimate the relative extent of aqueous processing by comparing inferred oxalate concentrations between air masses, with the assumption that sulfate primarily originates from aqueous processing.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) plays an important role in the budget and distribution of tropospheric oxidants, halogens, and reactive nitrogen species. ClNO2is formed from the heterogeneous uptake and reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on chloride‐containing aerosol, with a production yield,ϕ(ClNO2), defined as the moles of ClNO2produced relative to N2O5lost. Theϕ(ClNO2) has been increasingly incorporated into 3‐D chemical models where it is parameterized based on laboratory‐derived kinetics and currently accepted aqueous‐phase formation mechanism. This parameterization modelsϕ(ClNO2) as a function of the aerosol chloride to water molar ratio. Box model simulations of night flights during the 2015 Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) aircraft campaign derived 3,425 individualϕ(ClNO2) values with a median of 0.138 and range of 0.003 to 1. Comparison of the box model median to those predicted by two other field‐basedϕ(ClNO2) derivation methods agreed within a factor of 1.3, within the uncertainties of each method. In contrast, the box model median was 75–84% lower than predictions from the laboratory‐based parameterization (i.e., [parameterization − box model]/parameterization). An evaluation of factors influencing this difference reveals a positive dependence ofϕ(ClNO2) on aerosol water, opposite to the currently parameterized trend. Additional factors may include aqueous‐phase competition reactions for the nitronium ion intermediate and/or direct ClNO2loss mechanisms. Further laboratory studies of ClNO2formation and the impacts of aerosol water, sulfate, organics, and ClNO2aqueous‐phase reactions are required to elucidate and quantify these processes on ambient aerosol, critical for the development of a robustϕ(ClNO2) parameterization.

    more » « less