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  1. When diamond anvil cell (DAC) sample chambers are outfitted with both thermal insulation and electrodes, two cutting-edge experimental methods are enabled: Joule heating with spectroradiometric temperature measurement and electrical resistance measurements of samples heated to thousands of kelvin. The accuracy of temperature and resistance measurements, however, often suffers from poor control of the shape and location of the sample, electrodes, and thermal insulation. Here, we present a recipe for the reproducible and precise fabrication of DAC sample, electrodes, and thermal insulation using a three-layer microassembly. The microassembly contains two potassium chloride thermal insulation layers, four electrical leads, a sample, and a buttressing layer made of polycrystalline alumina. The sample, innermost electrodes, and buttress layer are fabricated by focused-ion-beam milling. Three iron samples are presented as proof of concept. Each is successfully compressed and pulsed Joule heated while maintaining a four-point probe configuration. The highest pressure-temperature condition achieved is ∼150 GPa and 4000 K.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 7, 2025
  2. Abstract Hydrated sulfates have been identified and studied in a wide variety of environments on Earth, Mars, and the icy satellites of the solar system. The subsurface presence of hydrous sulfur-bearing phases to any extent necessitates a better understanding of their thermodynamic and elastic properties at pressure. End-member experimental and computational data are lacking and are needed to accurately model hydrous, sulfur-bearing planetary interiors. In this work, high-pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were conducted on szomolnokite (FeSO4·H2O) up to ~83 and 24 GPa, respectively. This study finds a monoclinic-triclinic (C2/c to P1) structural phase transition occurring in szomolnokite between 5.0(1) and 6.6(1) GPa and a previously unknown triclinic-monoclinic (P1 to P21) structural transition occurring between 12.7(3) and 16.8(3) GPa. The high-pressure transition was identified by the appearance of distinct reflections in the XRD patterns that cannot be attributed to a second phase related to the dissociation of the P1 phase, and it is further characterized by increased H2O bonding within the structure. We fit third-order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state for each of the three phases identified in our data and refit published data to compare the elastic parameters of szomolnokite, kieserite (MgSO4·H2O), and blödite (Na2Mg(SO4)2·4H2O). At ambient pressure, szomolnokite is less compressible than blödite and more than kieserite, but by 7 GPa both szomolnokite and kieserite have approximately the same bulk modulus, while blödite’s remains lower than both phases up to 20 GPa. These results indicate the stability of szomolnokite’s high-pressure monoclinic phase and the retention of water within the structure up to pressures found in planetary deep interiors. 
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