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Creators/Authors contains: "Dodd, Sierra"

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  1. Abstract

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) provide a unique opportunity to probe the stellar populations around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). By combining light-curve modeling with spectral line information and knowledge about the stellar populations in the host galaxies, we are able to constrain the properties of the disrupted star for three TDEs. The TDEs in our sample have UV spectra, and measurements of the UV Niiito Ciiiline ratios enabled estimates of the nitrogen-to-carbon abundance ratios for these events. We show that the measured nitrogen line widths are consistent with originating from the disrupted stellar material dispersed by the central SMBH. We find that these nitrogen-to-carbon abundance ratios necessitate the disruption of moderately massive stars (≳1–2M). We determine that these moderately massive disruptions are overrepresented by a factor of ≳102when compared to the overall stellar population of the post-starburst galaxy hosts. This implies that SMBHs are preferentially disrupting higher mass stars, possibly due to ongoing top-heavy star formation in nuclear star clusters or to dynamical mechanisms that preferentially transport higher mass stars to their tidal radii.

  2. Abstract

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) can vary significantly in their rest-frame optical/UV continuum emission, and with strong associated changes in broad line emission, on much shorter timescales than predicted by standard models of accretion disks around supermassive black holes. Most suchchanging-lookorchanging-stateAGN—and at higher luminosities, changing-look quasars (CLQs)—have been found via spectroscopic follow-up of known quasars showing strong photometric variability. The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) includes repeat spectroscopy of large numbers of previously known quasars, many selected irrespective of photometric variability, and with spectral epochs separated by months to decades. Our visual examination of these repeat spectra for strong broad line variability yielded 61 newly discovered CLQ candidates. We quantitatively compare spectral epochs to measure changes in continuum and Hβbroad line emission, finding 19 CLQs, of which 15 are newly recognized. The parent sample includes only broad line quasars, so our study tends to find objects that have dimmed, i.e., turn-off CLQs. However, we nevertheless find four turn-on CLQs that meet our criteria, albeit with broad lines in both dim and bright states. We study the response of Hβand Mgiiemission lines to continuum changes. The Eddington ratios of CLQs are low, and/or theirmore »Hβbroad line width is large relative to the overall quasar population. Repeat quasar spectroscopy in the upcoming SDSS-V black hole Mapper program will reveal significant numbers of CLQs, enhancing our understanding of the frequency and duty cycle of such strong variability, and the physics and dynamics of the phenomenon.

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